18.1 In general, distributions will be given at the
provincial level unless a taxon is highly restricted in distribution and a more
detailed account is necessary (see paragraphs 18.3 and 18.6). Provinces and
autonomous regions are listed alphabetically, and no distinction will be made
between a province and an autonomous region (see also nonprovincial areas in
paragraph 18.3). These divisions include the following: Anhui, Chongqing,
Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan,
Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai,
Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
These divisions can be modified by using the directions C, E, EC, N, NC, NE, NW,
S, SC, SE, SW, W, or WC (e.g., "S Gansu, NE Sichuan"). Do not use a dash or the
word "to" in order to indicate a distributional range (e.g., "Anhui-Shandong";
"Guizhou to Hubei"; "N-NW Yunnan"; or "S to SE Jiangsu" must not be used).
18.2 A taxon endemic to China is marked with an asterisk "*"
at the beginning of the paragraph on the habitat and distribution (see the
example in paragraph 12.17).
18.3 The inclusion of Beijing Shi, Hong Kong, Macao, Shanghai
Shi, Nanhai Zhudao, and Tianjin Shi should be done only when the distribution
within these regions is of particular note (i.e., plants are endemic to one of
these regions or plants are found in one of these regions but not in the
adjacent Chinese provinces) (e.g., "Fujian, Hong Kong, Nanhai Zhudao, Taiwan
18.4 Attention must be paid to the following regarding place
a. Any rivers, mountains, places, or islands on the Chinese
border must use the standard Chinese names, not name from other languages,
(e.g., "Heilong Jiang" not "Amur River" and "Qomolangma Feng" not "Mt.
b. Chinese place names will be given according to the
standards accepted now (e.g., "Jinhong" not "Cheli" and "Youyiguang" not
c. Names of foreign countries will be the standard current
ones (e.g., "Malaysia" not "Malaya"; "Sri Lanka" not "Ceylon"; "Thailand" not
"Siam"; "Myanmar" not "Burma").
d. A place name belonging to a country will not be listed in
the same rank as that country (e.g., "Japan including Ryukyu Islands" not "Japan
and Ryukyu Islands").
e. For standard place names of China, authors should refer to
Gazetteer of China An Index to the Atlas of the People‘s Republic of
China, Map Press, Beijing (1983). It must be noted that place names in
Mongolian, Tibetan, and Uighur areas are often not standard Hanyu Pinyin
and cannot be transliterated character by character using a dictionary.
f. For the standard names of places in foreign countries,
authors should refer to the latest edition of the National Geographic Atlas
of the World. If authors have further questions about place names, they
should contact the Editorial Committee.
18.5 If a taxon is very local (i.e., only in a single
Xian or on a single mountain) a more exact distribution can be given in
parentheses (e.g., "Hubei (Lichuan Xian)" and "Sichuan (Emei Shan)"). However, a
locality should not be given below the level of a Xian or mountain (see
also paragraph 18.4e for transliteration problems).
18.6 If a taxon occurs beyond China, the distribution will be
given in brackets and in alphabetical order. Only countries adjacent to China
plus all other countries of tropical Asia, will be explicitly listed. These
countries include Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia,
Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal,
Pakistan, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Thailand,
Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam. Both Kashmir and Sikkim are to be treated
like countries and included in the alphabetical list of countries. If the
distribution extends beyond these countries, a generalized range, separated from
that of the foreign countries by a semicolon, will be given in the brackets. The
generalized range includes Africa, SW Asia, Australia, Europe, North America,
Pacific Islands, and South America (e.g., "Gansu, Qinghai, Xinjiang
[Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, Russia; SW Asia, Europe]").
18.7 The words boreal, temperate, tropical, circumpolar, and
subtropical will not be used. Also avoid using Eurasia (use Asia, Europe),
Middle East (use SW Asia), Far East (list Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia).