foc
《中国植物志》英文修订版
Flora of China
  FOC Vol.19 (2011)              | Family List  Acanthaceae  PDF     |  eFloras.org Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   3. Acanthaceae  
爵床科   jue chuang ke
  
Authors:Authors: Yunfei Deng, Jia-qi Hu, Thomas F. Daniel, John Wood & John R. I. Wood

  

Prostrate, erect, or rarely climbing herbs (annual or perennial), subshrubs, shrubs, or rarely small trees, usually with cystoliths (except in following Chinese genera: Acanthus, Blepharis, Nelsonia, Ophiorrhiziphyllon, Staurogyne, and Thunbergia), isophyllous (leaf pairs of equal size at each node) or anisophyllous (leaf pairs of unequal size at each node). Branches decussate, terete to angular in cross-section, nodes often swollen, sometimes spinose with spines derived from reduced leaves, bracts, and/or bracteoles. Stipules absent. Leaves opposite [rarely alternate or whorled]; leaf blade margin entire, sinuate, crenate, dentate, or rarely pinnatifid. Inflorescences terminal or axillary spikes, racemes, panicles, or dense clusters, rarely of solitary flowers; bracts 1 per flower or dichasial cluster, large and brightly colored or minute and green, sometimes becoming spinose; bracteoles present or rarely absent, usually 2 per flower. Flowers sessile or pedicellate, bisexual, zygomorphic to subactinomorphic. Calyx synsepalous (at least basally), usually 4- or 5-lobed, rarely (Thunbergia) reduced to an entire cupular ring or 10-20-lobed. Corolla sympetalous, sometimes resupinate 180o by twisting of corolla tube; tube cylindric or funnelform; limb subactinomorphic (i.e., subequally 5-lobed) or zygomorphic (either 2-lipped with upper lip subentire to 2-lobed and lower lip 3-lobed, or rarely 1-lipped with 3 lobes); lobes ascending or descending cochlear, quincuncial, contorted, or open in bud. Stamens epipetalous, included in or exserted from corolla tube, 2 or 4 and didynamous; filaments distinct, connate in pairs, or monadelphous basally via a sheath (Strobilanthes); anthers with 1 or 2 thecae; thecae parallel to perpendicular, equally inserted to superposed, spherical to linear, base muticous or spurred, usually longitudinally dehiscent; staminodes 0-3, consisting of minute projections or sterile filaments. Disk annular and nectar-producing at base of ovary. Ovary superior, 2-locular, placentation axile, with 2 to many ovules per locule; style filiform, simple; stigma funnel-shaped or 2-lobed (one lobe sometimes suppressed), one or both lobes sometimes recurved or recoiled. Fruit a loculicidal, stipitate or not, 2-valved, explosively dehiscent capsule [rarely drupaceous], 2- to many seeded, apex with or without a beak; septa remaining attached to or separating from inner wall of mature capsule. Seeds usually borne on hooklike retinacula (attached to septa of capsule), or retinacula lacking (Nelsonia, Ophiorrhiziphyllon, Staurogyne, Thunbergia), surface smooth or roughened, pubescent or lacking trichomes, sometimes with hygroscopic trichomes that expand when moistened.

About 220 genera and ca. 4,000 species: pantropical and subtropical, with a few species in temperate regions; 35 genera (one endemic) and 304 species (134 endemic, eight introduced) in China.

Pollen characters have traditionally been important in delimiting genera and higher taxa in the family; they are used sparingly in the key below.

Pollen characters have traditionally been important in delimiting genera and higher taxa in the family; they are used sparingly in the key below.

  
1Vines; calyx cupular with 10-20 lobes or reduced to an entire ring; capsule with a prominent apical sterile beak; seeds not borne on hooklike retinacula.4  Thunbergia    山牵牛属
+Prostrate or erect herbs, shrubs, or rarely small trees; calyx 4- or 5-lobed; capsule lacking a prominent apical sterile beak; seeds borne on hooklike retinacula or not(2)
   
2(1)Cystoliths absent; retinacula absent (except Acanthus and Blepharis)(3)
+Cystoliths present; retinacula present, hooklike(7)
   
3(2)Seeds laterally compressed, borne on hooklike retinacula; corolla 1-lipped (upper lip absent), lobes not with descending cochlear aestivation; anthers 1-thecous(4)
+Seeds subspherical or blocky, not borne on hooklike retinacula; corolla 2-lipped, lobes with descending cochlear aestivation; anthers 2-thecous(5)
   
4(3)Leaves opposite; flowers not subtended by up to 5 pairs of bracts; seeds lacking hygroscopic trichomes; lower filaments without an apical appendage.5  Acanthus    老鼠簕属
+Leaves usually in pseudo-whorl of 4; flowers subtended by up to 5 pairs of bracts; seeds with hygroscopic trichomes; lower filaments with an apical appendage.6  Blepharis    百簕花属
   
5(3)Prostrate herbs; bracteoles absent; calyx 4-lobed, anterior lobe 2-cleft at apex; stamens 2.1  Nelsonia    瘤子草属
+Erect herbs; bracteoles present; calyx 5-lobed; stamens 2 or 4(6)
   
6(5)Stamens 4, included or slightly exserted from mouth of corolla; anther thecae of a pair parallel; staminodes 0 or 1.2  Staurogyne    叉柱花属
+Stamens 2, long exserted; anther thecae of a pair divergent toward apex; staminodes 2.3  Ophiorrhiziphyllon    蛇根叶属
   
7(2)Calyx lobes heteromorphic, posterior lobe usually largest, anterior lobes connate to a greater degree than other lobes, lateral lobes smallest and innermost; corolla lobe aestivation quincuncial(8)
+Calyx lobes homomorphic (or nearly so; sometimes partially fused to form a bipartite or tripartite calyx in Strobilanthes), not as described above; corolla lobe aestivation not quincuncial(10)
   
8(7)Corolla large (mostly > 3 cm), upper lip usually appearing 4-lobed and lower lip appearing 1-lobed.29  Barleria    假杜鹃属
+Corolla small (< 3 cm), upper lip 2-lobed and lower lip 3-lobed(9)
   
9(8)Corolla to 1 cm; anther thecae usually lacking basal appendages; capsule 4-7 mm.30  Lepidagathis    鳞花草属
+Corolla ca. 2.5 cm; anther thecae spurred at base; capsule 12-16 mm.31  Chroesthes    色萼花属
   
10(7)Corolla lobes contorted in bud; stamens (or stamens + staminodes) 4(11)
+Corolla lobes ascending cochlear in bud; stamens 2 (except 4 in Asystasia), staminodes 0 or 2(17)
   
11(10)Style held in place by trichomes on one side of corolla tube; stamens monadelphous (by a sheath) at base.7  Strobilanthes    马蓝属
+Style not held in place by trichomes on one side of corolla tube; stamens not monadelphous at base(12)
   
12(11)Inflorescence secund strobilate spikes with orbicular to reniform bracts; ovules 2 per locule; seeds to 4 per capsule; corolla ca. 0.6 cm; septa with attached retinacula separating from inner wall of mature capsule.8  Phaulopsis    肾苞草属
+Inflorescence not as described above; ovules 4 to many per locule; seeds 4 or more per capsule; corolla 0.6-5.5 cm; septa with attached retinacula not separating from inner wall of mature capsule (except in Ruellia blechum)(13)
   
13(12)Corolla limb distinctly 2-lipped, lobes usually not equal; calyx tube often rupturing in weak hyaline regions between lobes; pollen 4-colporate, interapertural regions multistriate with pseudocolpi.9  Hygrophila    水蓑衣属
+Corolla limb nearly regular, lobes equal to subequal; mature calyx tube not rupturing in weak hyaline regions between lobes; pollen otherwise(14)
   
14(13)Fertile stamens 2, staminodes 2.10  Eranthemum    可爱花属
+Fertile stamens 4(15)
   
15(14)Anther thecae spurred at base.11  Echinacanthus    恋岩花属
+Anther thecae muticous at base(16)
   
16(15)Stems short; leaves in a basal rosette; anther thecae usually widely separated by a broad connective.12  Pararuellia    地皮消属
+Stems elongate; leaves cauline; anther thecae not separated by a broad connective.13  Ruellia    芦莉草属
   
17(10)Ovules 3 to many per locule; seeds 6 to many per capsule; pollen with apertural margins conspicuously thickened(18)
+Ovules 2 per locule; seeds 4 per capsule; pollen with apertural margins not thickened(21)
   
18(17)Capsule compressed perpendicular to septum; seeds subglobose, glabrous.33  Andrographis    穿心莲属
+Capsule linear and 4-angled, not compressed perpendicular to septum; seeds strongly compressed, glabrous or pubescent(19)
   
19(18)Staminodes 0.32  Gymnostachyum    裸柱草属
+Staminodes 2(20)
   
20(19)Corolla tube cylindric and slightly curved.34  Phlogacanthus    火焰花属
+Corolla tube abruptly inflated near middle and usually bent ca. 90°.35  Cystacanthus    鳔冠花属
   
21(17)Stamens 4.14  Asystasia    十万错属
+Stamens 2(22)
   
22(21)Anthers 1-thecous(23)
+Anthers 2-thecous(24)
   
23(22)Flowers subtended by a single pair of bracteoles; corolla not resupinate 180° by a twisting of corolla tube (i.e., upper lip entire to 2-lobed and lower lip 3-lobed), or if position of lips reversed then this by geniculation (without twisting) of corolla 18  Clinacanthus    鳄嘴花属
+Flowers subtended by an involucre of 2 or more pairs of floral bracteoles; corolla resupinate 180° by twisting of corolla tube (i.e., lip in upper position 3-lobed and lip in lower position entire to 2-lobed).28  Hypoestes    枪刀药属
   
24(22)Flowers subtended by involucre of 2 or more pairs of floral bracteoles; corolla resupinate 180° (i.e., lip in upper position 3-lobed and lip in lower position entire to 2-lobed)(25)
+Flowers subtended by a single pair of bracteoles (or bracteoles rarely lacking); corolla not resupinate 180° (i.e., upper lip entire to 2-lobed and lower lip 3-lobed)(26)
   
25(24)Septa with attached retinacula separating from inner wall of mature capsule.26  Dicliptera    狗肝菜属
+Septa with attached retinacula remaining attached to inner wall of mature capsule.27  Peristrophe    观音草属
   
26(24)Staminodes 2(27)
+Staminodes absent(30)
   
27(26)Corolla ± salverform (i.e., tube slender and cylindric, limb spreading and inconspicuously 2-lipped), tube conspicuously longer than limb, not or only slightly widened distally.15  Pseuderanthemum    山壳骨属
+Corolla ± campanulate to strongly 2-lipped (not salverform), tube not longer than limb, gradually widened distally(28)
   
28(27)Corolla 3-4 cm; anther thecae 4-5 mm.16  Mackaya    太平爵床属
+Corolla less than 2 cm; anther thecae less than 3 mm(29)
   
29(28)Corolla campanulate, 6.5-10 mm, externally glabrous; pollen 4-aperturate.22  Codonacanthus    钟花草属
+Corolla strongly 2-lipped, 10-15 mm, externally pubescent (to subglabrous); pollen 3-aperturate.23  Cosmianthemum    秋英爵床属
   
30(26)Upper lip of corolla lacking a stylar furrow on internal surface; anther thecae lacking basal appendages(31)
+Upper lip of corolla rugulate (i.e., with a furrow on inner surface of lip in which style resides); anther thecae (at least lower theca) usually with a basal appendage(33)
   
31(30)Corolla 1.7-4.5 cm; anther thecae subequally to unequally inserted; pollen 2-aperturate.17  Isoglossa    叉序草属
+Corolla less than 10 mm; anther thecae equally to subequally inserted; pollen 3-5-aperturate(32)
   
32(31)Corolla glabrous outside.19  Kudoacanthus    银脉爵床属
+Corolla pubescent outside.21  Leptostachya    纤穗爵床属
   
33(30)Septa with attached retinacula separating from inner wall of mature capsule; inflorescence often dense with imbricate bracts 2- or 4-ranked (but only 2 ranks fertile).20  Rungia    孩儿草属
+Septa with attached retinacula remaining attached to inner wall of mature capsule; inflorescence not as above(34)
   
34(33)Corolla not with combination of characters noted below.24  Justicia    爵床属
+Corolla white or greenish white, tube narrowly cylindric, conspicuously longer than limb.25  Rhinacanthus    灵枝草属
   
   List of lower taxa