foc
《中国植物志》英文修订版
Flora of China
  FOC Vol.19 (2011)              | Family List  Annonaceae  PDF     |  eFloras.org Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   21. Annonaceae  
番荔枝科   fan li zhi ke
  
Authors:Authors: Bingtao Li, Michael G. Gilbert & George Schatz

  

Trees, shrubs, or climbers, wood and leaves often aromatic; indument of simple or less often (Uvaria, Annona) stellate hairs. Leaves alternate, normally distichous. Stipules absent. Petiole usually short; leaf blade simple, venation pinnate, margin entire. Inflorescences terminal, axillary, leaf-opposed, or extra-axillary [rarely on often underground suckerlike shoots]. Flowers usually bisexual, less often unisexual, solitary, in fascicles, glomerules, panicles, or cymes, sometimes on older wood, usually bracteate and/or bracteolate. Sepals hypogynous, [2 or]3, imbricate or valvate, persistent or deciduous, rarely enlarging and enclosing fruit, free or basally connate. Petals hypogynous, 3-6(-12), most often in 2 whorls of 3 or in 1 whorl of 3 or 4[or 6], imbricate or valvate, sometimes outer whorl valvate and inner slightly imbricate. Stamens hypogynous, usually many, rarely few, spirally imbricate, in several series; filaments very short and thick; anther locules 2, contiguous or separate, rarely transversely locular, adnate to connective, extrorse or lateral, very rarely introrse, opening by a longitudinal slit; connectives often apically enlarged, usually ± truncate, often overtopping anther locules, rarely elongated or not produced. Carpels few to many, rarely solitary, free or less often connate into a 1-locular ovary with parietal placentas; ovules 1 or 2 inserted at base of carpel or 1 to several in 1 or 2 ranks along ventral suture, anatropous; styles short, thick, free or rarely connate; stigmas capitate to oblong, sometimes sulcate or 2-lobed. Fruit usually apocarpous with 1 to many free monocarps, these sometimes moniliform (constricted between seeds when more than 1-seeded), often fleshy, indehiscent, rarely dehiscent (Anaxagorea, Xylopia), and often with base extended into stipe, rarely on slender carpophore (Disepalum), less often syncarpous with carpels completely connate and seeds irregularly arranged and sometimes embedded in fleshy pulp. Seeds 1 to many per monocarp or many per syncarp, often arillate; endosperm copious, ruminate; embryo minute, near hilum.

About 129 genera and over 2,300 species: tropics and subtropics, especially in Old World; 24 genera (one endemic, three introduced) and 120 species (41 endemic, 11 introduced) in China.

The flowers often open before the petals have fully expanded making it easy to underestimate floral dimensions.

The flowers often open before the petals have fully expanded making it easy to underestimate floral dimensions.

  
1Fruit syncarpous, with completely united carpels and seeds embedded in pulp (usually cultivated as fruit trees)(2)
+Fruit apocarpous, with carpels forming free, often stipitate, monocarps(3)
   
2(1)Outer petals usually free, abaxially flat.23  Annona    番荔枝属
+Outer petals connate at base, abaxially spurred or winged.24  Rollinia    娄林果属
   
3(1)Sepals or inner petals and sometimes also outer petals clearly imbricate; stellate hairs often present(4)
+Sepals and inner and outer petal whorls all valvate or rarely very narrowly imbricate at tip only (only 1 whorl of petals present in Dasymaschalon); simple hairs usually present, less often plant glabrous(6)
   
4(3)Trees or self-supporting shrubs; stellate hairs absent; sepals imbricate; petals valvate or very minutely imbricate; ovules 1 per carpel.15  Trivalvaria    海岛木属
+Climbing shrubs; stellate hairs present; sepals valvate; inner petals and sometimes also outer petals imbricate; ovules 2 or more per carpel(5)
   
5(4)Petals spreading at anthesis; torus depressed.2  Uvaria    紫玉盘属
+Petals incurved at anthesis, not opening widely; torus flattened, margin prominent.3  Cyathostemma    杯冠木属
   
6(3)Climbing shrubs(7)
+Trees or erect shrubs(10)
   
7(6)Peduncles and fruiting pedicels hooklike.20  Artabotrys    鹰爪花属
+Peduncles and fruiting pedicels not hooklike(8)
   
8(7)Monocarps ellipsoid, moniliform when more than 1-seeded; petals basally constricted to form enclosed floral chamber around stamens and carpels.6  Desmos    假鹰爪属
+Monocarps globose to cylindric, never moniliform; petals not constricted(9)
   
9(8)Monocarp stipes 5.3-7.5 cm; outer petals usually much larger than inner petals; stamen connectives apically truncate (flowers of F. hainanensis unknown).21  Friesodielsia    尖花藤属
+Monocarp stipes 0.3-4 cm; outer petals only slightly larger than inner petals; stamen connectives apically acuminate to obtuse.22  Fissistigma    瓜馥木属
   
10(6)Petals (2 or)3, in 1 whorl.7  Dasymaschalon    皂帽花属
+Petals 6, in 2 whorls(11)
   
11(10)Inner petals basally clawed or stipitate, laminas vaulted and connate into an apical cap at least initially(12)
+Inner petals not basally clawed, spreading or connivent and apically 3-edged(16)
   
12(11)Outer petals 2-7 mm, usually smaller than inner petals and similar to sepals (inner and outer petals subequal in Orophea hainanensis and O. yunnanensis)(13)
+Outer petals more than 12 mm, equaling or longer than inner petals, conspicuously different from sepals(14)
   
13(12)Inner petals with a long basal claw, usually apically lozenge-shaped and cohering by their margins into a cap over stamens and carpels, sometimes with their tips conspicuously recurved; pedicel 0.2-1.2 cm.4  Orophea    澄广花属
+Inner petals with a short basal claw, shallowly saccate, at first cohering by their margins but soon free; pedicel usually 1.4-10 cm (0.5-0.7 cm in M. glochidioides).5  Miliusa    野独活属
   
14(12)Stamens linear-oblong; inner petals each with a short claw or stipe.8  Goniothalamus    哥纳香属
+Stamens cuneate; inner petals each with a long claw or stipe(15)
   
15(14)Outer petals 1.6-2.5(-3.4) cm, longer than inner petals.9  Mitrephora    银钩花属
+Outer petals 1-1.5 cm, shorter than inner petals.10  Pseuduvaria    金钩花属
   
16(11)Stamen connectives apically acuminate(17)
+Stamen connectives apically truncate, rounded, or broadly 3-angular(19)
   
17(16)Petals 5-8 cm, linear to linear-lanceolate.19  Cananga    依兰属
+Petals 0.7-1 cm, ovate-triangular to ovate-oblong, usually saccate and incurved at base(18)
   
18(17)Monocarps dehiscent, stipe clavate; ovules 2 per carpel.1  Anaxagorea    蒙蒿子属
+Monocarps indehiscent, stipe not clavate; ovules 5-22 per carpel.18  Alphonsea    藤春属
   
19(16)Ovules 1 or 2(or 3) per carpel, basally or nearly basally inserted(20)
+Ovules many per carpel, ventrally inserted(22)
   
20(19)Inner petals concave and incurved to cover stamens; fruiting carpels free but usually connivent.17  Popowia    嘉陵花属
+Inner petals spreading; fruiting carpels free and not connivent(21)
   
21(20)Monocarp bases extended into stipes, not articulate at base.14  Polyalthia    暗罗属
+Monocarps on slender carpophores, articulate between apex of carpophore and base of monocarp.16  Disepalum    异萼花属
   
22(19)Flower buds lanceolate, apically long beaked and 3-angled; sepals connate at base or beyond into a cup; petals elongated, concave at base, narrowly convex below middle; anther locules transversely septate.11  Xylopia    木瓣树属
+Flower buds ovoid, apically rounded; sepals connate at base but not into a cup; petals flat or cucullate; anther locules not transversely septate(23)
   
23(22)Petals flat; stamen connectives apically rounded; stigmas subcapitate, not constricted at base; monocarps almost sessile (Chinese species).12  Meiogyne    鹿茸木属
+Petals cucullate; stamen connectives apically truncate to subtruncate; stigmas ovoid, constricted at base; monocarps long stipitate.13  Chieniodendron    蕉木属
   
   List of lower taxa