foc
《中国植物志》英文修订版
Flora of China
  FOC Vol.23 (2010)              | Family List  Araceae  PDF     |  eFloras.org Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   2. Araceae  
天南星科   tian nan xing ke
  
Authors:Authors: Heng Li, Guanghua Zhu, Peter C. Boyce, Jin Murata, Wilbert L. A. Hetterscheid, Josef Bogner & Niels Jacobsen

  

Herbs, perennial, of diverse habit including climbers, floating aquatics, helophytes, pachycaul shrubs, and geophytes. Underground stems absent, or present and then rhizomatous or tuberous; aerial stems variously produced or not, often evergreen; bulbils for vegetative reproduction sometimes produced, e.g., on leaf or on special shoots. Leaves alternate or apparently basal, usually petiolate with sheathing bases, often subtended by prophylls and/or cataphylls; leaf blade various, e.g., linear, simple (base often cordate to sagittate), sometimes peltate or variously compound (e.g., pinnate, radiate, pedate, or decompound), or still more complex and "dracontioid" (elaborate forms of sagittate, hastate, or trisect leaves in which anterior and posterior divisions are highly dissected and subdivided). Inflorescences (sometimes precocious) subtended by membranous prophylls and/or cataphylls, consisting of a spadix subtended by a spathe. Spathe commonly with tubelike base (margins fused or not) persistent or with deciduous blade. Spadix bearing bisexual or unisexual flowers, in latter case plants paradioecious or monoecious (spadix female proximally and male distally), very rarely with morphologically bisexual but functionally unisexual flowers. Bisexual flowers: tepals 0, 4, or 6; stamens 4-6(-22), filaments free, anthers with 2 thecae; ovary usually 3-loculed or more loculed or 1-loculed (pseudomonomerous). Unisexual flowers almost always naked [rare exceptions (only 3 genera, these all from Africa, including cultivated Zamioculcas with tepalate flowers)]: male represented by 1-6 (usually 2-4) free stamens or 2-12 (rarely up to 32) stamens connate into a synandrium overtopped by a common synconnective, anthers often subsessile, usually dehiscing apically by pores or slits (straight or horseshoe-shaped); female flowers consisting of a single ovary (sometimes associated with a sterile staminode), commonly 1-loculed (sometimes with 3 or 4 locules), ovules 1 to many per locule, placentation parietal, axile, basal, or apical. Pollen grains aperturate or inaperturate, exine of various ornamentation. Most genera (Aroideae s.l.) with inaperturate pollen grains without sporopollenin. Sterile (neuter) flowers derived from male or female flowers sometimes present at apex or base of female and/or male zones of spadix. Spadix sometimes with a sterile, terminal appendix. Fruit usually a head of 1- to several-seeded indehiscent separate berries, or dehiscent via shedding stylar plate (Monstereae excluding Amydrium) or syncarpous and apically dehiscent (Cryptocoryne) or syncarpous and indehiscent (Syngonium, cultivated), commonly red, green, white, or yellow, rarely blue.

About 110 genera and more than 3,500 species: all parts of the world except polar regions and the driest deserts, chiefly in tropical and subtropical regions; 26 genera and 181 species (72 endemic) in China.

There is an abundance of Araceae in the S and SW provinces of China. The NE and NW regions are poorer. About 50% of Araceae species in China are medicinal plants; for example, Arisaema heterophyllum, Pinellia pedatisecta, and P. ternata have been used since ancient times. Tubers of Amorphophallus and Colocasia are used for food or in industry for starch. Pistia is very valuable as feed for pigs and sometimes is cultivated as an ornamental plant in aquatic gardens.

There is an abundance of Araceae in the S and SW provinces of China. The NE and NW regions are poorer. About 50% of Araceae species in China are medicinal plants; for example, Arisaema heterophyllum, Pinellia pedatisecta, and P. ternata have been used since ancient times. Tubers of Amorphophallus and Colocasia are used for food or in industry for starch. Pistia is very valuable as feed for pigs and sometimes is cultivated as an ornamental plant in aquatic gardens.

  
1Flowers bisexual(2)
+Flowers unisexual, plants monoecious or sometimes dioecious; perigone absent(11)
   
2(1)Flowers with perianth ("perigone")(3)
+Flowers without perianth ("perigone") or reduced and not visible from above(6)
   
3(2)Plants climbing(4)
+Plants herbaceous, not climbing(5)
   
4(3)Ovary 3-loculed (but fruit monomerous); flowers functionally bisexual.2  Pothos    石柑属
+Ovary 1-loculed; flowers functionally unisexual (plants dioecious).3  Pothoidium    假石柑属
   
5(3)Plants without prickles (unarmored); leaves deciduous, oblong-cordate; inflorescences carried at ground level with most of peduncle hypogeal; plants of boreal habitats.1  Symplocarpus    臭菘属
+Plants armored with prickles; leaves evergreen, sagittate or hastate to pinnatifid or pinnatipartite; inflorescence carried on an erect, aerial peduncle; plants of tropical habitats.9  Lasia    刺芋属
   
6(2)Plants aquatic and/or helophytic; spathe persistent; fruit red; plants of boreal habitats.10  Calla    水芋属
+Plants climbing, not aquatic and/or helophytic; spathe deciduous; fruit various, if red then spathe caducous; plants of tropical habitats(7)
   
7(6)Fruit each a discrete indehiscent berry(8)
+Fruit not a discrete berry, dehiscent via shedding of stylar plate(9)
   
8(7)Inflorescences solitary or at most 3 held loosely together; flowers without perigone; fruit ovoid, white at maturity.5  Amydrium    雷公连属
+Inflorescences several together distichously arranged; flowers with reduced inconspicuous perigone; fruit truncate, red at maturity.4  Anadendrum    上树南星属
   
9(7)Fruit each with numerous small, straight seeds.6  Rhaphidophora    崖角藤属
+Fruit each with 1 to few large, curved seeds(10)
   
10(9)Seeds 2-4 per fruit on an intrusive parietal placenta; leaves pinnately divided with pinholes along midrib.7  Epipremnum    麒麟叶属
+Seed 1 per fruit on a basal placenta; leaves always entire.8  Scindapsus    藤芋属
   
11(1)Plant a free-floating aquatic.26  Pistia    大漂属
+Plant never a free-floating aquatic, if aquatic then rooted in soil(12)
   
12(11)Suffruticose herbs; fruit a red berry.15  Aglaonema    广东万年青属
+Herbaceous plants of various life forms but never suffruticose; fruit various(13)
   
13(12)Rooted aquatics; female flowers connate; fruit an apically dehiscent syncarpium.13  Cryptocoryne    隐棒花属
+Terrestrial herbs and/or geophytes; female flowers free; fruit separate, indehiscent(14)
   
14(13)Stamens of each male flower entirely connate into distinct synandrium(15)
+Stamens of each male flower free, or only filaments connate (rarely also anthers fused in Arisaema)(19)
   
15(14)Spathe not differentiated into a distal limb and proximal tube(16)
+Spathe differentiated into a distal limb and proximal tube separated by a pronounced constriction(17)
   
16(15)Spathe brightly colored (inside commonly yellow or purple-red); female flowers with staminodes (staminodes absent in S. griffithii); stem a repent or suberect epigeal rhizome.22  Steudnera    泉七属
+Spathe white; female flowers without staminodes; stem a hypogeal tuber or stolon.14  Hapaline    细柄芋属
   
17(15)Plant with conspicuous erect aerial stolons bearing numerous barbed bulbils.23  Remusatia    岩芋属
+Plant without conspicuous erect aerial stolons, if stolons present then these decumbent and bearing tubercles at tips(18)
   
18(17)Mature infructescences declined to pendent; placentation parietal; fruit C. gigantea), pale yellow to brown and fruit-smelling when ripe; seeds small, very numerous per fruit.24  Colocasia    芋属
+4 mm, red when ripe, odorless; seeds large, few per fruit.25  Alocasia    海芋属
   
19(14)Spadix appendix absent (spadix fertile to apex), or if present then usually consisting of clearly defined subglobose sterile (neuter) flowers(20)
+Spadix appendix present, ± smooth to rugulose, hairy or echinate, without subglobose sterile (neuter) flowers, or if such sterile flowers present then usually confined to proximal part or base(21)
   
20(19)Spathe wholly persistent into fruiting, splitting from base to apex at fruit maturity; spathe free from spadix; spadix appendix absent; vegetative tissues aromatic (terpenoids) when crushed.11  Homalomena    千年健属
+Spathe limb deciduous during anthesis, proximal spathe persisting to fruiting and then splitting from apex to base at fruit maturity; much of female zone of spadix adnate to spathe; spadix appendix present; vegetative tissues not aromatic.12  Schismatoglottis    落檐属
   
21(19)Spadix unisexual, or if bisexual then male and female zones contiguous or separated by sterile zone usually covered with staminodes(22)
+Spadix bisexual, male and female zones separated by naked sterile axis (interstice)(23)
   
22(21)Leaves variously divided (most commonly pedate to pedatisect but not decompound), very rarely entire; berries ripening reddish.21  Arisaema    天南星属
+Leaves commonly solitary, usually decompound, very rarely pedate, never entire; berries ripening red or blue.16  Amorphophallus    蘑芋属
   
23(21)Female zone of spadix adnate to spathe.20  Pinellia    半夏属
+Female zone of spadix free(24)
   
24(23)Appendix with a whorl of prominent staminodes directly above male zone; placentation parietal.17  Arum    疆南星属
+Appendix with a stipelike smooth part below base or contiguous with male zone, whorl of staminodes absent above male zone; placentation basal(25)
   
25(24)Sterile zone between female and male zones with smooth naked distal part, base with various numbers of staminodes or whole zone covered with staminodes but then leaves always entire and proximal staminodes spatulate (in T. flagelliforme).18  Typhonium    犁头尖属
+Sterile zone between female and male zones fully covered with staminodes, or grooved and with staminodes only at base; leaves usually pedate, rarely entire (in S. giganteum); staminodes never spatulate19  Sauromatum    斑龙芋属
   
   List of lower taxa