foc
《中国植物志》英文修订版
Flora of China
  FOC Vol.23 (2010)              | Family List  Arecaceae  PDF     |  eFloras.org Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   20. Arecaceae  (PALMAE)
棕榈科   zong lü ke
  
Authors:Authors: Shengji Pei, Sanyang Chen, Guo Lixiu, John Dransfield & Andrew Henderson

  

Stems solitary or clustered, short and subterranean, erect, or climbing. Leaves pinnate, palmate, or costapalmate, spirally or rarely distichously arranged, sometimes spiny; sheaths usually open, sometimes closed and forming crownshafts, in climbing plants usually with knees and sometimes with flagella; petioles short or absent to elongate, smooth, spiny, in palmate leaves with a hastula at apex, rarely hastula absent; rachis short to elongate, absent in palmate leaves, sometimes extended into a whiplike climbing organ (cirrus); pinnae in pinnate leaves either regularly or irregularly arranged along rachis, spreading in 1 or several planes, variously shaped, mostly reduplicate, rarely induplicate, sometimes jagged or lobed at apices, rarely gray abaxially; segments in palmate leaves variously arranged, single or multi-fold, split to varying degrees, mostly induplicate, rarely reduplicate. Plants monoecious, sometimes dioecious, iteroparous (pleonanthic) or less often semelparous (hapaxanthic). Inflorescences borne among or below leaves, solitary or rarely multiple at each node; peduncle bearing a prophyll and usually 1 or more peduncular bracts; rachis bearing prominent or much-reduced rachis bracts; rachillae 1 to many, bearing flowers in various arrangements, often solitary, paired, in threes (triads) or more; flowers usually with 3 sepals, 3 petals, 6 stamens, and 3 carpels. Fruits variously shaped and colored, sometimes covered with overlapping scales; endosperm ruminate or homogeneous; germination remote or adjacent; eophylls undivided, bifid, pinnate, or palmate.

About 183 genera and ca. 2,450 species: tropical and subtropical areas in Africa, the Americas, Asia, Madagascar, and the Pacific; 18 genera (two introduced) and 77 species (27 endemic, four introduced, including Areca catechu, Arenga pinnata, Cocos nucifera, and Phoenix dactylifera) in China.

A very wide range of palm species is grown as ornamentals in botanical gardens, including those in the humid, tropical parts of China. A few are more widely grown in China and are listed at the end of this account.

A very wide range of palm species is grown as ornamentals in botanical gardens, including those in the humid, tropical parts of China. A few are more widely grown in China and are listed at the end of this account.

  
1Leaves palmate or costapalmate(2)
+Leaves pinnate (or pinnately veined if undivided) or bipinnate(7)
   
2(1)Hastula absent; petioles deeply channeled.12  Chuniophoenix    琼棕属
+Hastula present; petioles not deeply channeled(3)
   
3(2)Petiole margins unarmed(4)
+Petiole margins armed(5)
   
4(3)Segments with 1(or 2) reduplicate folds, green abaxially.9  Rhapis    棕竹属
+Segments with several induplicate folds, grayish or silvery white abaxially.7  Guihaia    石山棕属
   
5(3)Leaf blades split to their bases into multi-fold, wedge-shaped segments with lobed apices.11  Licuala    轴榈属
+Leaf blades not or seldom split to their bases, segments single or multi-fold, not wedge-shaped, with pointed or split apices(6)
   
6(5)Adult leaves markedly costapalmate; petioles with stout spines along margins; fruits globose to ellipsoid, not grooved.10  Livistona    蒲葵属
+Adult leaves palmate; petioles with small, blunt spines along margins; fruits kidney-shaped or oblong, grooved.8  Trachycarpus    棕榈属
   
7(1)Pinnae induplicate, at base of leaf modified into green, straight spines.6  Phoenix    刺葵属
+Pinnae reduplicate, at base of leaf not modified into spines(8)
   
8(7)Stems, leaves, or inflorescences spiny(9)
+Stems, leaves, and inflorescences not spiny(13)
   
9(8)Stems stiff and erect, sometimes short and subterranean, not climbing, without flagella and cirri(10)
+Stems thin and flexible, climbing, with either flagella or cirri(11)
   
10(9)Stems always short and subterranean, or creeping; ocrea absent.1  Salacca    蛇皮果属
+Stems subterranean or erect; ocrea present, often conspicuous.3  Calamus    省藤属
   
11(9)Knees on leaf sheaths absent; inflorescences borne simultaneously at apex of stem, their production ending life of stem (semelparous); inflorescence branches covered with prominent, overlapping bracts obscuring flowers.2  Plectocomia    钩叶藤属
+Knees on leaf sheaths usually present; inflorescences borne sequentially along stem, their production not ending life of stem (iteroparous); inflorescence branches without prominent, overlapping bracts, flowers visible(12)
   
12(11)Cirri always present; inflorescences not flagellate, usually shorter than leaves, with boat-shaped bracts splitting their entire length and then either falling off or remaining attached and enclosed by prophyll, without grapnel-like spines.4  Daemonorops    黄藤属
+Cirri present or absent; inflorescences flagellate or not flagellate, usually longer than leaves, with sheathing, tubular bracts not or only briefly splitting and remaining attached, not enclosed by prophyll, usually with grapnel-like spines.3  Calamus    省藤属
   
13(8)Pinnae with pointed apices(14)
+Pinnae, at least apical ones, with lobed or jagged apices(15)
   
14(13)Stems creeping, seldom visible; leaves erect.5  Nypa    水椰属
+Stems erect; leaves spreading.16  Cocos    椰子属
   
15(13)Leaf sheaths closed and forming a crownshaft; inflorescences borne below crownshaft, with only 1 bract (or bract scar); only apical pinnae with lobed margins(16)
+Leaf sheaths open, not forming a crownshaft; inflorescences borne among leaves, with several bracts (or bract scars); all pinnae with lobed or jagged margins(17)
   
16(15)Apical few nodes of stems covered with reddish brown scales; apical part of rachillae not shriveling, male and female flowers borne all along rachillae.18  Pinanga    山槟榔属
+Apical few nodes of stems green, without scales; apical part of rachillae with male flowers only, shriveling after flowers are shed.17  Areca    槟榔属
   
17(15)Leaves bipinnate; pinnae green abaxially.13  Caryota    鱼尾葵属
+Leaves pinnate; pinnae silvery gray abaxially(18)
   
18(17)Pinnae strongly asymmetric, scarcely to deeply lobed along margins; sepals of male flowers joined at their bases into a cupule.15  Wallichia    瓦理棕属
+Pinnae ± symmetric, notched but usually not lobed along margins; sepals of male flowers free, imbricate.14  Arenga    桄榔属
   
   List of lower taxa