foc
《中国植物志》英文修订版
Flora of China
  FOC Vol.19 (2011)              | Family List  Caprifoliaceae  PDF     |  eFloras.org Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   16. Caprifoliaceae  
忍冬科   ren dong ke
  
Authors:Authors: Qiner Yang, Sven Landrein, Joanna Osborne & Renata Borosova

  

Shrubs or woody climbers, rarely small trees or herbs. Leaves opposite, rarely whorled, simple or pinnatifid, conduplicate or involute in vernation; interpetiolar stipules absent or rarely well developed. Inflorescence thyrsoid, axillary or terminal, compact or lax, cymes 1-, 2-, or 3-flowered; paired flowers sometimes with ovaries ± fused. Cymes with a pair of bracts and 2 pairs of bracteoles, located at base of ovaries, ± fused, occasionally accrescent in fruit, rarely absent. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic or zygomorphic. Calyx 4- or 5-lobed. Corolla epigynous, gamopetalous; lobes 4 or 5, spreading, sometimes bilabiate, aestivation imbricate. Stamens (4 or)5, didynamous, alternating with corolla lobes, sometimes exserted; anthers free, 2-celled, opening by longitudinal slits, introrse. Ovary inferior, carpels 2-8, fused; placenta axile; ovules 1 to many per locule, some of which can be abortive, pendulous; style solitary; stigmas capitate or lobed. Fruit a berry, a drupe with 2-5 pyrenes, or a leathery achene. Seeds 1 to many; embryo small, straight; endosperm copious.

Five genera and ca. 207 species: mostly in temperate regions of E Asia and E North America; five genera (one endemic) and 66 species (25 endemic) in China.

Following recent phylogenetic studies (Bell et al., Harvard Pap. Bot. 6(2): 481-499. 2001; Donoghue et al., Harvard Pap. Bot. 6(2): 459-479. 2001; W. H. Zhang et al., Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 26: 176-189. 2002), Caprifoliaceae is now thought to include Caprifolieae, Diervilleae, Linnaeeae, Morinaceae, Dipsacaceae, and Valerianaceae. However, Blacklund and Pyck (Taxon 47: 657-661. 1998) preferred to retain Caprifolieae as a distinct family and raise Linnaeeae and Diervilleae as new families, and this system is followed in the Flora of China.

Following recent phylogenetic studies (Bell et al., Harvard Pap. Bot. 6(2): 481-499. 2001; Donoghue et al., Harvard Pap. Bot. 6(2): 459-479. 2001; W. H. Zhang et al., Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 26: 176-189. 2002), Caprifoliaceae is now thought to include Caprifolieae, Diervilleae, Linnaeeae, Morinaceae, Dipsacaceae, and Valerianaceae. However, Blacklund and Pyck (Taxon 47: 657-661. 1998) preferred to retain Caprifolieae as a distinct family and raise Linnaeeae and Diervilleae as new families, and this system is followed in the Flora of China.

  
1Flowers single and opposite in a spike(2)
+Flowers paired (rarely single and then pedunculate; rarely in threes and then bracteoles fused into a cupule) or in whorls of 6(3)
   
2(1)Ovaries 5-, 7-, or 8-locular, all locules with many ovules.4  Leycesteria    鬼吹箫属
+Ovaries 4-locular, 2 locules with 1 fertile ovule, other 2 locules with many sterile ovules.3  Symphoricarpos    毛核木属
   
3(1)Flowers paired (rarely single and then pedunculate; rarely in threes and then bracteoles fused into a cupule).5  Lonicera    忍冬属
+Flowers in whorls of 6(4)
   
4(3)Flowers 6 in a single whorl, with 2 pairs of tight involucral bracts forming a capitulum; capitula paniculate; shrubs with triplinerved leaves.2  Heptacodium    七子花属
+Inflorescence different, if flowers in a capitulum then plant a climber with perfoliate involucral bracts and bilabiate flowers in 1-4 whorls(5)
   
5(4)Herbs; leaves pinnatifid, otherwise perfoliate.1  Triosteum    莛子藨属
+Shrubs or climbers; leaves entire, not perfoliate (involucral bracts sometimes perfoliate)(6)
   
6(5)Shrubs; flowers funnelform.4  Leycesteria    鬼吹箫属
+Climbers; flowers bilabiate.5  Lonicera    忍冬属
   
   Lower Taxon
  • Heptacodium  Rehder in Sargent  七子花属
  • Leycesteria  Wallich in Roxburgh  鬼吹箫属
  • Lonicera  Linnaeus  忍冬属
  • Symphoricarpos  Duhamel du Monceau  毛核木属
  • Triosteum  Linnaeus  莛子藨属