foc
《中国植物志》英文修订版
Flora of China
  FOC Vol.19 (2011)              | Family List  Cucurbitaceae  PDF     |  eFloras.org Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   1. Cucurbitaceae  
葫芦科   hu lu ke
  
Authors:Authors: Anmin Lu & Charles Jeffrey

  

Herbs, annual or perennial, or weak, woody shrubs with watery sap, scandent or prostrate. Roots fibrous or tuberous. Stem often angular. Leaves alternate, undivided or variously palmately or pedately divided, often cordate; tendrils solitary, lateral, simple or branched, spirally twisted, rarely absent; stipules absent. Plants monoecious or dioecious; flowers unisexual, very rarely bisexual; flowers paniculate, racemose, or subumbellate, rarely solitary. Calyx tube (hypanthium) adnate to ovary; tube rotate, campanulate, or saucer-shaped, usually 5-lobed; segments imbricate. Corolla usually sympetalous, inserted on calyx tube; segments valvate or involute. Stamens inserted at base or mouth of calyx tube, usually 5 or 3, of which one often 1-celled and other two 2-celled; filaments separate or variously united into a column; anthers separate or coherent into a head; anther cells straight to conduplicate, extrorse; rudimentary ovary often present in male flowers; staminodes often in female flowers. Ovary inferior or nearly completely so, mostly composed of 3 carpels, 3-locular, rarely 1- or 2- or spuriously 4-6-locular; ovules usually numerous, rarely few or solitary, horizontal, pendulous, or ascending, often immersed in pulp; placentas parietal, fleshy, often confluent at middle of ovary; style terminal, simple or branched at apex or styles free; stigma enlarged or 2-fid. Fruit usually a fleshy berry or corky, indehiscent or rarely opening by valves or by an operculum, rarely fibrous. Seeds often numerous, rarely few or solitary, horizontal, pendulous, or ascending, often compressed, rarely winged; endosperm absent; embryo with leaflike cotyledons and short radicle.

About 123 genera and over 800 species: most in tropics and subtropics, very rare in temperate regions; 35 genera (one endemic, nine introduced) and 151 species (73 endemic, 14 introduced) in China.

Lu An-ming & Zhang Zhi-yun. 1986. Cucurbitaceae. In: Lu An-ming & Chen Shu-kun, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 73(1): 84-280.

Lu An-ming & Zhang Zhi-yun. 1986. Cucurbitaceae. In: Lu An-ming & Chen Shu-kun, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 73(1): 84-280.

  
1Corolla segments fimbriate at margin(2)
+Corolla segments not fimbriate(3)
   
2(1)Ovules and seeds numerous; calyx tube less than 7 cm.21  Trichosanthes    栝楼属
+Ovules 12, seeds usually 6, each with 1 abortive seed attached to its side; calyx tube 7-10 cm.20  Hodgsonia    油渣果属
   
3(1)Stamens 5, anther cells ovoid and straight(4)
+Stamens 3 or 1, anther cells horizontal when only 1 stamen, or rarely 5 but then anther cells conduplicate(15)
   
4(3)Leaves palmately compound, rarely simple(5)
+Leaves simple(9)
   
5(4)Plants woody, scandent; leaflets almost entire, with 2 glands at base; seeds with membranous wing at apex.4  Neoalsomitra    棒锤瓜属
+Plants herbaceous, scandent; leaflets distinctly denticulate, eglandular at base; seeds without wing or rarely winged(6)
   
6(5)Fruit indehiscent; seeds horizontal.11  Thladiantha    赤瓟属
+Fruit 3-valved, dehiscent at apex or rarely not dehiscent but then smaller in size; seeds pendulous(7)
   
7(6)Corolla segments more than 5 mm; fruit clavate-cylindric, obovoid, or globose, more than 6-seeded.1  Hemsleya    雪胆属
+Corolla segments less than 3 mm; fruit turbinate or globose, 1-3(-5)-seeded(8)
   
8(7)Plants monoecious; fruit turbinate, 3-valved, dehiscent at apex.2  Gomphogyne    锥形果属
+Plants dioecious; fruit globose or campanulate, indehiscent or dehiscent along ventral suture.3  Gynostemma    绞股蓝属
   
9(4)Flowers with corolla segments less than 10 mm; fruit dehiscent, operculate or 3-valved(10)
+Flowers with corolla segments ca. 2 cm, or if smaller then calyx longer than corolla; fruit baccate, indehiscent; seed not winged(12)
   
10(9)Leaf blade entire; fruit 6-10 cm, truncate at apex, 3-valved; seeds surrounded by a membranous wing.5  Zanonia    翅子瓜属
+Leaf blade divided; fruit 1-3.5 cm, operculate; seed not winged or with membranous wing at apex(11)
   
11(10)Plants monoecious; leaf blade cordate-hastate, eglandular at base; fruit dehiscent near middle; seeds not winged.7  Actinostemma    盒子草属
+Plants dioecious; leaf blade with 1 or 2 pairs of glands at base; fruit dehiscent near apex; seeds with membranous wing at apex.6  Bolbostemma    假贝母属
   
12(9)Flowers with calyx longer than corolla; anthers reniform; fruit more than 10 cm.8  Indofevillea    藏瓜属
+Flowers with corolla longer than calyx; anthers oblong; fruit less than 10 cm(13)
   
13(12)Plants with black glandular scales.9  Siraitia    罗汉果属
+Plants without glandular scales(14)
   
14(13)Tendrils spiraling only above point of branching; anther cells straight.11  Thladiantha    赤瓟属
+Tendrils spiraling also below point of branching; anther cells reniform-curved.10  Sinobaijiania    白兼果属
   
15(3)Stamens united into a central column and pollen sac fusing into ring; leaf blade pedatipartite.22  Cyclanthera    小雀瓜属
+Stamens 3, or rarely 5 but then anther cells conduplicate; leaves not pedately compound(16)
   
16(15)Flowers less than 10 mm in diam(17)
+Flowers more than 10 mm in diam(24)
   
17(16)Plants dioecious or rarely flowers bisexual; fruit 3-valved from apex to base when mature; seeds 1-3, pendulous.14  Schizopepon    裂瓜属
+Plants usually monoecious, rarely dioecious; fruit indehiscent; seeds often horizontal(18)
   
18(17)Male flowers without pistillode; anther cells conduplicate; male and female flowers fasciculate in leaf axil.29  Diplocyclos    毒瓜属
+Male flowers with globose or subulate pistillode; anther cells straight, curved or conduplicate(19)
   
19(18)Anther cells incurved or reflexed.33  Solena    茅瓜属
+Anther cells straight(20)
   
20(19)Male flowers in sessile or subsessile fascicles; ovary hispid.27  Mukia    帽儿瓜属
+Male flowers in pedunculate cymes, racemes, or umbels, or solitary; ovary glabrous or with fine hairs(21)
   
21(20)Filaments as long as or longer than anthers, ca. 1 mm or more(22)
+Filaments shorter than anthers, 0.5-1 mm(23)
   
22(21)Corolla yellow; filaments and staminodes glabrous except at very base; seeds scrobiculate.28  Scopellaria    云南马(瓜交)儿属
+Corolla white or pale yellow; filaments and staminodes hairy above base; seeds smooth.25  Zehneria    马(瓜交)儿属
   
23(21)Anther connective not produced beyond thecae; stigmas glabrous, apically shortly 2-lobed; fruit black when ripe.24  Melothria    美洲马(瓜交)儿属
+Anther connective usually shortly produced beyond thecae; stigmas papillose, rounded; fruit white or red when ripe.25  Zehneria    马(瓜交)儿属
   
24(16)Anther cells straight; calyx tube narrowly funnelform.17  Edgaria    三棱瓜属
+Anther cells conduplicate(25)
   
25(24)Tendrils absent.13  Ecballium    喷瓜属
+Tendrils present(26)
   
26(25)Corolla campanulate(27)
+Corolla rotate or rarely campanulate but then segments almost free(28)
   
27(26)Leaf blade hirsute, eglandular at base; flowers yellow; fruit large.35  Cucurbita    南瓜属
+Leaf blade glabrous, with a few glands at base; flowers white; fruit ca. 5 cm.30  Coccinia    红瓜属
   
28(26)Calyx tube in male flower elongate, tubular or funnelform(29)
+Calyx rotate(32)
   
29(28)Flowers white; petiole apex 2-glandular.31  Lagenaria    葫芦属
+Flowers yellow; leaf blade eglandular at base(30)
   
30(29)Corolla rotate; leaf blade less than 10 cm.19  Gymnopetalum    金瓜属
+Corolla campanulate; leaf blade over 10 cm(31)
   
31(30)Leaf blade deeply lobed; seeds many, horizontal.15  Biswarea    三裂瓜属
+Leaf blade undivided; seeds few, pendulous.16  Herpetospermum    波棱瓜属
   
32(28)Flowers with leaflike bract on pedicel; fruit usually muriculate, often 3-valved when mature.12  Momordica    苦瓜属
+Flowers without bract on pedicel(33)
   
33(32)Male inflorescence racemose or subumbellate(34)
+Flowers solitary or fascicled(35)
   
34(33)Annual herb; fruit many seeded.18  Luffa    丝瓜属
+Perennial climber; fruit 1-seeded; seed large.23  Sechium    佛手瓜属
   
35(33)Calyx segments subleaflike, dentate, reflexed.34  Benincasa    冬瓜属
+Calyx segments subulate, entire, not reflexed(36)
   
36(35)Tendrils 2- or 3-fid; connective not produced.32  Citrullus    西瓜属
+Tendrils simple; connective produced beyond anther cells.26  Cucumis    黄瓜属
   
   List of lower taxa