foc
《中国植物志》英文修订版
Flora of China
  FOC Vol.23 (2010)              | Family List  Cyperaceae  PDF     |  eFloras.org Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   22. Cyperaceae  
莎草科   suo cao ke
  
Authors:Authors: Lun-Kai Dai, Prof. Song-Yun Liang, Shuren Zhang, Yancheng Tang, Tetsuo Koyama, Gordon C. Tucker, David A. Simpson, Henry J. Noltie, Mark T. Strong, Jeremy J. Bruhl, Karen L. Wilson & A. Muthama Muasya

  

Herbs, annual or perennial, rhizomatous to stoloniferous. Culms (stems) simple, often 3-sided. Leaves basal and/or cauline, often 3-ranked, comprising a blade and sheath but sometimes only sheath present; sheath open or closed; ligule often present, sometimes on opposite side to leaf blade; leaf blade usually linear, grasslike, sometimes basally broader and constricted into a pseudopetiole. Involucral bracts 1 to several, leaflike or glumelike. Inflorescences unbranched and spicate or capitate, to branched and anthelate (umbel-like) or paniculate, comprising 1 to many ultimate inflorescence units, these either indeterminate and called spikelets or in a few genera determinate and called pseudospikelets (see explanation below). Spikelets with 1 to many glumes, sometimes reduced to a single flower and aggregated into unisexual spikes; glumes membranous to leathery, spirally arranged or 2-ranked, each subtending a single flower. Pseudospikelets comprising 2-12 membranous scalelike floral bracts on a much reduced axis; lowest 2 bracts opposite, keeled, pseudospikelet subtended and usually hidden by a glumelike bract; bracts spirally arranged and aggregated into spikeletlike spikes. Flowers bisexual or unisexual with plants monoecious or rarely dioecious. Perianth absent or reduced to bristles or scales. Stamens 1-3; anthers basifixed. Ovary 2- or 3-carpellate, unilocular, with a single ovule; style divided or rarely undivided, base sometimes persistent and variously shaped in fruit; stigmas 2 or 3. Fruit usually a hard 2- or 3-sided nutlet, rarely with a succulent or corky exocarp, surface smooth or variously minutely patterned, sometimes partially or completely enclosed by an enlarged basal prophyll (utricle).

One hundred and six genera and ca. 5,400 species: worldwide except Antarctica; 33 genera and 865 species (326 endemic, five introduced) in China.

Recent phylogenetic studies (e.g., D. A. Simpson et al., Aliso 23: 72-83. 2007; A. M. Muasya et al., Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 75: 52-66. 2009) suggest that tribal and generic delimitation in Cyperaceae is likely to be modified in the future.

Recent phylogenetic studies (e.g., D. A. Simpson et al., Aliso 23: 72-83. 2007; A. M. Muasya et al., Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 75: 52-66. 2009) suggest that tribal and generic delimitation in Cyperaceae is likely to be modified in the future.

  
1Inflorescence comprising small units (pseudospikelets) with 2 opposite, keeled, scalelike bracts at base often enclosing a further 2-10 scalelike bracts, each unit subtended and usually hidden by a glumelike bract(2)
+Inflorescence not as above(4)
   
2(1)Leaves without blades; culms with transverse septa.3  Lepironia    石龙刍属
+Leaves with blades fully developed; culms without septa(3)
   
3(2)Pseudospikelets with 5 or 6 scalelike bracts; stamens 3 per pseudospikelet.2  Mapania    擂鼓苈属
+Pseudospikelets with 2 scalelike bracts; stamens 2 per pseudospikelet.1  Hypolytrum    割鸡芒属
   
4(1)All flowers unisexual(5)
+At least some flowers bisexual(8)
   
5(4)Female flowers and nutlets not hidden by a utricle(6)
+Female flowers and nutlets hidden by a utricle(7)
   
6(5)Inflorescence made up of capitate clusters of spikelets arising along whole length of culm; nutlets tightly enclosed by 2 subtending glumes and shed with them.31  Diplacrum    裂颖茅属
+Inflorescence paniculate or ± capitate, arising on upper part of culm; nutlets not tightly enclosed by 2 glumes.30  Scleria    珍珠茅属
   
7(5)Utricle ± open on one side; at least some spikelets bisexual with male flowers above female flower.32  Kobresia    嵩草属
+Utricle completely closed except at apex; spikelets all unisexual with either 1 male or 1 female flower.33  Carex    薹草属
   
8(4)Spikelets much reduced, with 0-2 glumes subtended by a glumelike spikelet bract, spikelets densely clustered into spikes or in a capitate inflorescence(9)
+Spikelets not as above, elongated, with spirally or distichously arranged glumes(10)
   
9(8)Perennial with long-creeping rhizome; sandy beaches near sea only.17  Remirea    海滨莎属
+Annual or perennial, without long-creeping rhizome; inland.20  Lipocarpha    湖瓜草属
   
10(8)Spikelets usually with bisexual and male flowers(11)
+Spikelets usually with bisexual flowers only(17)
   
11(10)Nutlets biconvex, with persistent style base; stigmas 2 or style undivided.23  Rhynchospora    刺子莞属
+Nutlets trigonous or obtuse trigonous-cylindric, without persistent style base; stigmas 3(12)
   
12(11)Glumes distichous, middle glumes with flowers, lowest empty.24  Schoenus    赤箭莎属
+Glumes spirally arranged, rarely distichous, usually apex or near apex with flowers(13)
   
13(12)Leaves flat, midrib conspicuous or inconspicuous; inflorescence paniculate spreading and loose or small capitate; perianth bristles present or absent; nutlets beaked(14)
+Leaf midrib inconspicuous or terete; inflorescence densely narrowly paniculate, long and large and spreading, loose; perianth bristles present or absent; nutlets beakless(15)
   
14(13)Glumes spirally arranged; leaves dorsiventral.26  Cladium    克拉莎属
+Glumes ± distichous; leaves unifacial.27  Machaerina    剑叶莎属
   
15(13)Leaves linear or terete, involute on margins; perianth bristles absent.25  Gahnia    黑莎草属
+Leaves terete or flat; perianth bristles present(16)
   
16(15)Leaves terete; perianth connate at base, glabrous; nutlets smooth.28  Lepidosperma    鳞籽莎属
+Leaves flat; perianth separate, pubescent; nutlets with reticulate wrinkles.29  Tricostularia    三肋果莎属
   
17(10)Glumes increasing in length toward apex of spikelet.22  Actinoschoenus    星穗莎属
+Glumes ± equal in length (with 1-3 smaller glumes often at base of spikelet)(18)
   
18(17)Style jointed with ovary and clearly demarcated from it(19)
+Style continuous with ovary and not demarcated from it(21)
   
19(18)Leaf blades absent; perianth bristles present.11  Eleocharis    荸荠属
+Leaf blades usually present, if absent then style base not persistent on nutlet; perianth bristles absent(20)
   
20(19)Leaf sheath without long silky hairs at apex; nutlets without persistent style base.12  Fimbristylis    飘拂草属
+Leaf sheath with long silky hairs at apex; nutlets with persistent style base.13  Bulbostylis    球柱草属
   
21(18)Inflorescence spicate with few to many apparently distichous spikelets.21  Blysmus    扁穗草属
+Inflorescence not as above(22)
   
22(21)Glumes distichous(23)
+Glumes spirally arranged(26)
   
23(22)Stigmas 3, rarely 2; nutlets trigonous, rarely biconvex with 1 side facing spikelet axis(24)
+Stigmas 2; nutlets 2-sided with 1 margin facing spikelet axis(25)
   
24(23)Annual or perennial; glumes not winged.15  Cyperus    莎草属
+Annual; glumes prominently winged.16  Courtoisina    翅鳞莎属
   
25(23)Spikelets with more than 2 glumes; spikelet axis and glumes persistent.18  Pycreus    扁莎属
+Spikelets with 1 or 2 glumes; spikelet axis deciduous, spikelets falling whole.19  Kyllinga    水蜈蚣属
   
26(22)Perianth bristles present, 3 inner ones squamellate.7  Fuirena    芙兰草属
+Perianth bristles present but not as above, or absent(27)
   
27(26)Perianth bristles 10-30, elongating extremely after anthesis, smooth, silky.5  Eriophorum    羊胡子草属
+Perianth bristles up to 6, elongating or not after anthesis, or absent(28)
   
28(27)Inflorescence paniculate(29)
+Inflorescence a single spikelet, up to 3 spikelets, or capitate, if paniculate then longest inflorescence bract culmlike and apparently continuous with culm, inflorescence appearing to be lateral(30)
   
29(28)Culms not nodose; leaves basal only.9  Actinoscirpus    大藨草属
+Culms nodose; leaves basal and up to 8 cauline.4  Scirpus    藨草属
   
30(28)Inflorescence bract glumelike, shorter than inflorescence.6  Trichophorum    针蔺属
+Inflorescence bracts leaflike or culmlike, longest exceeding inflorescence(31)
   
31(30)Spikelets up to 4 mm; perianth bristles absent; nutlet up to 0.9 mm (mostly ca. 0.5 mm).14  Isolepis    细莞属
+Spikelets 4 mm or more; perianth bristles usually present; nutlet 1 mm or more(32)
   
32(31)At least 2 involucral bracts over 1.5 cm, longest involucral bract leaflike, erect to spreading.8  Bolboschoenus    三棱草属
+One involucral bract over 1.5 cm, longest involucral bract erect, culmlike and apparently continuous with culm, inflorescence appearing to be lateral.10  Schoenoplectus    水葱属
   
   List of lower taxa