foc
《中国植物志》英文修订版
Flora of China
  FOC Vol.16 (1995)              | Family List  Gentianaceae  PDF     |  eFloras.org Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   Gentianaceae  A. L. Jussieu
龙胆科   long dan ke
  
Authors:Ho Ting-nung; James S. Pringle

  

Herbs [shrubs or small trees], annual, biennial, or perennial. Stems ascending, erect, or twining. Leaves opposite, less often alternate or whorled, simple, base connate; stipules absent. Inflorescences simple or complex cymes, sometimes reduced to sessile clusters, often in a thyrse or 1-flowered. Flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, 4 or 5 (or 6-8)[-12]-merous. Calyx tubular, obconic, campanulate, or rotate, lobes joined at least basally. Corolla tubular, obconic, salverform, funnelform, campanulate, or rotate, rarely with basal spurs; lobes overlapping to right or rarely valvate in bud; plicae (extensions of the corolla tube between the lobes) present or absent. Stamens inserted on corolla tube or occasionally at sinus between corolla lobes, alternate with lobes; anthers basifixed or dorsifixed, 2-locular. Nectaries absent or attached to ovary base or corolla. Ovary usually 1-locular at least apically, rarely 2-locular due to intrusion of a lamellate placenta into locular cavity. Fruit a 2-valved capsule, rarely a berry. Seeds many or rarely few, small; endosperm abundant [scant in saprophytic genera].

About 80 genera and 700 species: worldwide; 20 genera and 419 species in China, of which two genera and 251 species are endemic.

Ho Ting-nung; Liu Shang-wu, & Wu Ching-ju in Ho Ting-nung, ed. 1988. Gentianaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 62: 1-411.

  
1Plants saprophytic, with little or no chlorophyll; leaves scalelike2  Cotylanthera    杯药草属
+Plants autotrophic; leaves green, well developed.(2)
   
2(1)Plants dioecious; corolla lobed nearly to base13  Veratrilla    黄秦艽属
+Plants with perfect flowers; corolla generally distinctly tubular.(3)
   
3(2)Fertile stamens 1 or 2 (or 3), with distinctly longer filaments; sterile stamens 2 or 3, anthers nonfunctional, filaments distinctly shorter to nearly absent5  Canscora    穿心草属
+Stamens all fertile and without some filaments distinctly longer.(4)
   
4(3)Corolla with plicae extending between lobes.(5)
+Corolla without plicae between lobes.(8)
   
5(4)Stems twining or trailing.(6)
+Stems (at least flowering stems) ascending to erect, neither twining nor trailing (plants may be stoloniferous).(7)
   
6(5)Calyx tube with 5 vascular bundles; nectaries forming a collarlike disc around gynophore; stamens unequal, recurved7  Tripterospermum    双蝴蝶属
+Calyx tube with 10 vascular bundles; nectaries 5, on gynophore; stamens equal, straight8  Crawfurdia    蔓龙胆属
   
7(5)Filaments broadly and asymmetrically winged below middle, abruptly narrowed apically; seeds broadly winged, discoid8  Crawfurdia    蔓龙胆属
+Filaments flattened or narrowly winged, tapering gradually toward apex; seeds variously winged or wingless, not discoid9  Gentiana    龙胆属
   
8(4)Corolla with 4 distinct spurs12  Halenia    花锚属
+Corolla without spurs.(9)
   
9(8)Anthers opening by apical pores1  Exacum    藻百年属
+Anthers opening by longitudinal slits.(10)
   
10(9)Anthers helically coiled4  Centaurium    白金花属
+Anthers not coiled.(11)
   
11(10)Stems twining6  Pterygocalyx    翼萼蔓属
+Stems not twining.(12)
   
12(11)Stamens inserted at or very near sinuses of corolla tube.(13)
+Stamens inserted on corolla tube distinctly below sinuses.(15)
   
13(12)Perennials; basal leaves in a well-developed rosette with blades mostly over 5 cm; stem leaves in 1-3 pairs; capsules distinctly curved, valves with bent or twisted tips10  Latouchea    匙叶草属
+Annuals; basal leaves not in a rosette or rosette leaves not larger than stem leaves; stem leaves often more than 3 pairs; capsules straight, valves without bent or twisted tips.(14)
   
14(13)Corolla yellow; leaf blade 1-2.5 × 0.5-0.8 mm; corolla lobes contorted in bud3  Sebaea    小黄管属
+Corolla blue or purple; leaf blade over 2 × 1 mm but usually much larger; corolla lobes valvate in bud at least toward base20  Jaeschkea    口药花属
   
15(12)Nectaries on gynophore; corolla over 5 cm, 5lobed11  Megacodon    大钟花属
+Nectaries on corolla; corolla less than 5 cm or if longer then 4lobed.(16)
   
16(15)Nectaries surrounded by fringed or tubular appendages.(17)
+Nectaries not surrounded by fringes or appendages.(19)
   
17(16)Nectaries on corolla lobes; stigma elevated above ovary, not decurrent14  Swertia    獐牙菜属
+Nectaries on corolla tube near base; stigma decurrent on ovary.(18)
   
18(17)Corolla lobe with 2 nectaries each in a conspicuous pit; corolla tissue associated with nectary and pit sometimes basally connate, apically lobulate or lamellate15  Lomatogonium    肋柱花属
+Corolla lobe with 1 nectary not in a conspicuous pit; corolla tissue associated with nectaries lamellate or galeate appendaged, margin entire or erose16  Lomatogoniopsis    辐花属
   
19(16)Flowers 4merous; 2 outer calyx lobes narrower than and basally overlapping 2 inner lobes; discontinuous intracalycular membranes present17  Gentianopsis    扁蕾属
+Flowers 4 or 5merous; calyx lobes equal or nearly so, not overlapping nor in 2 distinct pairs; intracalycular membranes absent.(20)
   
20(19)Corolla lobes less than 5 × as long as tube.(21)
+Corolla lobes at least 5 × as long as tube.(22)
   
21(20)Corolla with 1 or 2 nonvascularized fringed scales at base of each lobe18  Comastoma    喉花草属
+Corolla either without appendages or with a single vascularized fringed scale at base of each lobe19  Gentianella    假龙胆属
   
22(20)Nectaries on corolla lobes; stigma elevated above ovary, not decurrent14  Swertia    獐牙菜属
+Nectaries on corolla tube near base; stigma decurrent on ovary.(23)
   
23(22)Corolla lobe with 2 nectaries each in a conspicuous pit; corolla tissue associated with nectary and pit sometimes basally connate, apically lobulate or lamellate15  Lomatogonium    肋柱花属
+Corolla lobe with 1 nectary not in a conspicuous pit; corolla tissue associated with nectaries lamellate or galeate appendaged, margin entire or erose16  Lomatogoniopsis    辐花属
   
   List of lower taxa