foc
《中国植物志》英文修订版
Flora of China
  FOC Vol.18 (1998)              | Family List  Gesneriaceae  PDF     |  eFloras.org Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   Gesneriaceae  Dumortier
苦苣苔科   ku ju tai ke
  
Authors:Wang Wen-tsai, Pan Kai-yu, Li Zheng-yu; Anna L. Weitzman, Laurence E. Skog

  

Herbs, shrubs, or rarely trees. Leaves opposite or rarely alternate, whorled or basal, rosette forming; exstipulate; usually simple, rarely shallowly to deeply lobed, pinnately or rarely palmately veined. Inflorescences usually cymes, rarely racemes, axillary, often near apex and appearing terminal; usually pedunculate. Flowers perfect, zygomorphic, seldom actinomorphic. Calyx actinomorphic, rarely zygomorphic; usually (4 or)5-divided. Corolla gamopetalous, zygomorphic, rarely actinomorphic; usually 2-lipped. Fertile stamens 2 or 4, then often didynamous, rarely 5, epipetalous; anthers free or coherent, thecae 2, parallel, divergent, or divaricate; staminodes 1-3 or absent. Disc ringlike to cupular, rarely absent. Ovary superior in all Old World taxa [half inferior, or inferior], 1-loculed; gynophore seldom present; placentas (1 or)2, parietal, rarely 2-loculed, placenta 1 per locule and axile; ovules numerous, anatropous. Style 1; stigmas 1 or 2. Fruit usually capsular, loculicidal, septicidal, or circumscissile, rarely a berry, indehiscent. Seeds numerous, fusiform to ellipsoid or ovoid, minute, sometimes with appendages at 1 or both ends, with or without endosperm; embryo straight, cotyledons equal or unequal after germination.

About 133 genera and 3000 species: Africa, Central and South America, E and S Asia, S Europe, Oceania; 56 genera (25 endemic) and 442 species (354 endemic) in China.

A few foreign well-known ornamental species are cultivated in China, including the florist's gloxinia, Sinningia speciosa (Loddiges) Hiern, and African violet, Saintpaulia ionantha Wendland.

The two ovary carpels may each produce a stigma; these stigmas are fused into a single structure. Some students of Gesneriaceae have considered the stigma to be single and either simple (capitate) or 2-lobed, whereas others consider each of the two stigmas as units. We have maintained the latter usage, but a family-wide investigation of stigma development is needed. The distinction can be blurred, however, because the stigmas may be completely fused into one with a capitate apex (as in Didymocarpus) or one of the two carpels or stigmas may be aborted resulting in a single stigma that may or may not be 2-lobed.

Certain characters used in this treatment require some explanation. Disc shape is frequently described as "ringlike," "cupular," or rarely "tubular"; ringlike describes a disc that is shorter than or equalling its diameter, and cupular describes one that is longer than its diameter. Tubular describes a disc which is at least twice as long as wide. The corolla tube diameter measurement is for the widest part, usually the mouth.

Wang Wentsai, Pan Kaiyu, & Li Zhenyu. 1990. Gesneriaceae. In: Wang Wentsai, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 69: 125-581.

  
1Inflorescences racemose; seeds with scalelike appendages at both ends; flowers sometimes replaced by propagules56  Titanotrichum    台闽苣苔属
+Flowers solitary or inflorescences cymose (including umbel-like or paniculate cymes), sometimes racemelike and 1-sided; seeds either not appendiculate or with subulate or hairlike appendages at 1 or both ends (unknown in Calcareoboea. Dayaoshania,<(2)
   
2(1)Corolla actinomorphic, 4- or 5-lobed; stamens 4 or 5, staminodes absent; seeds unappendaged (unknown in Thamnocharis).(3)
+Corolla zygomorphic, usually distinctly 2-lipped or rarely actinomorphic; fertile stamens (1 or)2 or 4, staminodes absent or 1-3; seeds appendaged or unappendaged.(6)
   
3(2)Corolla suburceolate, tube longer than limb; stamens included, anther thecae divergent, confluent apically; capsule 4-valved3  Tengia    世纬苣苔属
+Corolla rotate or campanulate, tube 1/3-1 X limb; stamens equalling corolla or exserted, anther thecae parallel, not confluent; capsule 2-valved.(4)
   
4(3)Anthers connate into a tube surrounding style, connectives with long apical projections; disc absent; inflorescences umbel-like cymes; leaves 1 to few4  Conandron    苦苣苔属
+Anthers free, connectives without projections; disc ringlike; inflorescences cymes; leaves few to many.(5)
   
5(4)Bracts 2, opposite; corolla purple to blue, deeply 4- or 5-lobed, tube rotate; stamens adnate to corolla near base, anthers basifixed; stigma 1, nearly truncate or punctiform; leaf blade base cuneate1  Thamnocharis    辐花苣苔属
+Bracts 6-9 to numerous, crowded, involucrate; corolla white, 4- or 5-lobed, tube campanulate; stamens adnate to corolla tube near or above middle, anthers dorsifixed; stigmas 2, equal, oblate to 2-lipped; leaf blade base truncate to cordate2  Bournea    四数苣苔属
   
6(2)Fruit indehiscent berries, fleshy to leathery; plants woody herbs or shrubs.(7)
+Fruit dehiscent capsule; plants herbaceous to shrubby.(8)
   
7(6)Calyx divided from base; corolla campanulate-tubular; stamens 449  Rhynchotechum    线柱苣苔属
+Calyx divided only from above middle (in China); corolla funnelform-tubular; stamens 2 (in China)50  Cyrtandra    浆果苣苔属
   
8(6)Calyx plicate between lobes; corolla tube campanulate, spurred or saccate at base; stamens 4; ovary depressed globose or subglobose.(9)
+Calyx not plicate; corolla tube funnelform to tubular, cylindric, salverform, urceolate, or campanulate, base usually not swollen, rarely saccate, sometimes gibbous abaxially; stamens (1 or)2 or 4; ovary linear to oblong or ovoid, rarely subglobose or glo(10)
   
9(8)Leaves slightly unequal in a pair; adaxial corolla lip ca. 1/2 as long as abaxial lip; anthers free, thecae not confluent51  Gyrogyne    圆果苣苔属
+Leaves strongly unequal in a pair, smaller much reduced; adaxial corolla lip as long as abaxial lip; anthers coherent laterally to form a shallow cone, thecae confluent at apex52  Stauranthera    十字苣苔属
   
10(8)Capsule ovoid to depressed globose, shorter than calyx; ovary ovoid to depressed globose; inflorescences cymose, sympodial, or scorpioid, racemose; bract apparently absent or 1; stem leaves 1 to few.(11)
+Capsule linear to ovoid, much surpassing calyx, rarely shorter than calyx, then leaves all basal (fruit unknown in Paraisometrum); ovary usually linear to oblong, rarely ellipsoid, linear-lanceolate, conical, or ovoid; flowers solitary or infloresc(13)
   
11(10)Leaves opposite, strongly unequal in a pair, smaller much reduced and sessile; inflorescences apparently without bracts; calyx with many longitudinal secretory canals; staminode 1; ovary 2-loculed; placenta 1, axile53  Whytockia    异叶苣苔属
+Leaves alternate, or lowest stem leaf only unpaired, adaxial ones usually opposite and equal or nearly so in a pair; bract 1; calyx without secretory canals; staminodes 2, 3, or absent; ovary 1-loculed; placentas 2, parietal.(12)
   
12(11)Leaves few, all alternate; inflorescences lax racemes appearing scorpioid; stamens 2 and abaxial, or 4; capsule loculicidal54  Rhynchoglossum    尖舌苣苔属
+Leaves 1 to few, lowest leaf unpaired, those near apex usually opposite; inflorescences scorpioid cymes, dense; stamens 2, adaxial; capsule circumscissile55  Epithema    盾座苣苔属
   
13(10)Fertile stamens 4.(14)
+Fertile stamens 2.(37)
   
14(13)Calyx zygomorphic, 2-lipped, adaxial lip undivided, abaxial lip 4-lobed; disc tubular; capsule narrowly ellipsoid15  Cathayanthe    扁蒴苣苔属
+Calyx actinomorphic, 5-lobed to 5-sect from base; disc ringlike, rarely cupular or inconspicuous; capsule oblong to linear, rarely conical to ovoid.(15)
   
15(14)Plants stemless.(16)
+Plants with a distinct stem.(27)
   
16(15)Adaxial corolla lip 4-lobed, over 2 X longer than abaxial lip, abaxial lip undivided8  Paraisometrum    弥勒苣苔属
+Adaxial corolla lip 2-lobed, equalling or much shorter than abaxial lip, abaxial lip 3-lobed or 3-sect.(17)
   
17(16)Stigma 1.(18)
+Stigmas 2.(21)
   
18(17)Abaxial corolla lip densely bearded inside; bracts apparently absent; corolla tube tubular; anthers coherent in pairs, thecae divaricate13  Corallodiscus    珊瑚苣苔属
+Corolla glabrous to puberulent inside; bracts 2, rarely absent or several; corolla tube campanulate to broadly tubular, sometimes oblique, sometimes saccate at base, throat some- times constricted; anthers free or all 4 coherent together, thecae parallel (19)
   
19(18)Anthers of all 4 stamens coherent together; capsule oblique in relation to pedicel; adaxial corolla lip distinctly shorter than abaxial16  Beccarinda    横蒴苣苔属
+Anthers free; capsule straight in relation to pedicel; adaxial corolla lip slightly shorter than to as long as abaxial.(20)
   
20(19)Ovary oblong; anther thecae parallel, not confluent, seldom horseshoe-shaped, then thecae divaricate and confluent at apex; corolla tube 1-4 X longer than limb; leaf blade base cuneate to subcordate5  Oreocharis    马铃苣苔属
+Ovary ovoid or conical; anther thecae subparallel, confluent at apex; corolla tube slightly shorter than limb; leaf blade base cuneate to attenuate18  Boeica    短筒苣苔属
   
21(17)Adaxial corolla lip emarginate to nearly entire.(22)
+Adaxial corolla lip 2-lobed to 2-sect from base.(23)
   
22(21)Corolla tube subcampanulate to funnelform-tubular, not swollen; stamens adnate to corolla near base, all or only abaxial ones exserted, anthers free, thecae confluent at apex6  Tremacron    短檐苣苔属
+Corolla tube narrowly funnelform to cylindric, slightly gibbous abaxially; stamens adnate to corolla tube above or rarely below middle, usually included, rarely exserted, anthers coherent in pairs, thecae not confluent9  Ancylostemon    直瓣苣苔属
   
23(21)Ovary 2-loculed, only adaxial locule fertile; placenta 1, axile; capsule oblique in relation to pedicel; cymes 1-3-flowered11  Briggsiopsis    筒花苣苔属
+Ovary 1-loculed; placentas 2, parietal; capsule straight in relation to pedicel; cymes 1- to many flowered.(24)
   
24(23)Corolla tube narrowly campanulate, gibbous abaxially, (0.7-)1-2(-2.6) cm in diam., abaxial lip 3-lobed10  Briggsia    粗筒苣苔属
+Corolla tube cylindric to funnelform, broadly tubular, campanulate, urceolate, or salverform, not swollen, slightly gibbous abaxially, or slightly ampliate basally, 0.2-1(-1.2) cm in diam., abaxial lip 3-sect, rarely 3-lobed.(25)
   
25(24)Anthers dehiscing longitudinally from arcuate slits; corolla zygomorphic, rarely actinomorphic, tube campanulate, cylindric, or rarely urceolate or salverform, not swollen7  Isometrum    金盏苣苔属
+Anthers dehiscing longitudinally, rarely transversely; corolla zygomorphic, tube campanulate-cylindric to broadly tubular, sometimes ampliate basally, throat sometimes constricted or narrowly funnelform to cylindric, slightly gibbous abaxially.(26)
   
26(25)Corolla purple to blue or white or yellow to red, tube campanulate-cylindric to broadly tubular, sometimes ampliate basally, throat sometimes constricted, adaxial lip 2-lobed; anthers free; calyx 5-sect from base5  Oreocharis    马铃苣苔属
+Corolla orange to yellow or white, rarely pink, tube narrowly funnelform to cylindric, slightly gibbous abaxially, adaxial lip 2-lobed, emarginate, or rarely undivided; anthers coherent in pairs; calyx 5-sect from base to 5-lobed from above middle9  Ancylostemon    直瓣苣苔属
   
27(15)Stigmas 2.(28)
+Stigma 1.(31)
   
28(27)Ovary 2-loculed, only adaxial locule fertile; placenta 1, axile; capsule oblique in relation to pedicel; corolla tube tubular-funnelform; cymes 1-3-flowered11  Briggsiopsis    筒花苣苔属
+Ovary 1-loculed; placentas 2, parietal; corolla tube cylindric to broadly tubular or narrowly campanulate, sometimes ampliate above; capsule straight in relation to pedicel; cymes 1- to many flowered.(29)
   
29(28)Corolla tube cylindric basally, ampliate above, not swollen12  Didissandra    漏斗苣苔属
+Corolla tube narrowly campanulate to broadly tubular, gibbous abaxially.(30)
   
30(29)Seeds unappendaged10  Briggsia    粗筒苣苔属
+Seeds with 1 hairlike appendage at each end46  Loxostigma    紫花苣苔属
   
31(27)Calyx zygomorphic, 2-lipped, adaxial lip undivided, abaxial lip 4-lobed; disc tubular; capsule splitting along 1 suture15  Cathayanthe    扁蒴苣苔属
+Calyx actinomorphic, 5-sect from base or 5-lobed, segments equal or unequal; disc ringlike, inconspicuous or absent; capsule 2(or 4)-valved.(32)
   
32(31)Leaves 1(or 2), apical on stem; leaf blade base cordate to auriculate; anthers dehiscing from fissures or cracks; capsule slightly longer than calyx14  Platystemma    堇叶苣苔属
+Leaves few to many, opposite, rarely whorled, spread along stem or crowded near stem apex; leaf blade base cuneate to attenuate or rounded, rarely cordate; anthers dehiscing longitudinally, poricidally, or transversely; capsule much longer than calyx.(33)
   
33(32)Seeds with 1 subulate or hairlike appendage at each end, or with up to 50 appendages at hilar end; corolla tube narrowly tubular to funnelform-tubular or subtubular, longer or much longer than limb, 4-17 mm in diam.; ovary linear; stamens adnate to coroll(34)
+Seeds unappendaged; corolla tube campanulate, shorter than to slightly longer than limb, 3-9 mm in diam.; ovary ovoid, ellipsoid, or conical; stamens adnate to corolla near or slightly above base, anthers free or all 4 coherent together.(35)
   
34(33)Corolla white to yellowish, tube subtubular, gibbous abaxially near limb, with 2 arcuate projections abaxially inside; stamens included, thecae confluent at apex; seeds with 1 subulate appendage at each end45  Anna    大苞苣苔属
+Corolla red to orange, seldom greenish, yellow, or white, tube narrowly tubular to funnelform-tubular, often curved, not swollen, inside sparsely puberulent, sparsely glandular puberulent, glabrous, or with a hair ring; stamens usually exserted, thecae no47  Aeschynanthus    芒毛苣苔属
   
35(33)All anthers coherent together; capsule oblique in relation to pedicel; leaf blade base cordate to cuneate16  Beccarinda    横蒴苣苔属
+Anthers free; capsule straight in relation to pedicel; leaf blade base cuneate to attenuate.(36)
   
36(35)Corolla yellowish, tube slightly longer than limb; anther thecae not confluent; ovary ellipsoid; cymes 3-5-flowered17  Leptoboea    细蒴苣苔属
+Corolla white to pink or blue to purple, tube slightly shorter than limb; anther thecae confluent at apex; ovary ovoid or conical; cymes 1- to many flowered18  Boeica    短筒苣苔属
   
37(13)Plants with a distinct stem.(38)
+Plants stemless.(50)
   
38(37)Stigmas 2.(39)
+Stigma 1.(43)
   
39(38)Flowers solitary; capsule valves spirally twisted; corolla tube campanulate-tubular, adaxial lip slightly shorter than abaxial44  Rhabdothamnopsis    长冠苣苔属
+Inflorescences cymes, sometime spikelike or racemelike, 2-10-flowered; capsule valves straight, not twisted; corolla tube slender funnelform, funnelform, or funnelform-tubular, adaxial lip much shorter than abaxial.(40)
   
40(39)Bracts forming a globose involucre; corolla tube much longer than limb; leaf blade base attenuate to broadly cuneate; stamens adnate to corolla tube below middle, anthers coherent by adaxial surfaces, thecae divaricate, confluent26  Hemiboeopsis    密序苣苔属
+Bracts not forming an involucre; corolla tube longer than limb; leaf blade base cuneate to rounded or cordate; stamens adnate to corolla tube near middle, anthers coherent at apex, thecae parallel, not confluent at apex.(41)
   
41(40)Stigmas equal, oblate or semiorbicular, undivided; calyx 5-sect from base; stamens adnate to corolla tube near mouth, slightly exserted21  Didymostigma    双片苣苔属
+Stigmas unequal, smaller 1 truncate or triangular, undivided, larger 1 narrowly obtrapeziform, emarginate; calyx 5-lobed; stamens adnate to corolla tube near middle, included.(42)
   
42(41)Ovary 1-loculed; placentas parietal; corolla abaxial lip lobes unequal22  Pseudochirita    异裂苣苔属
+Ovary 2-loculed; placentas axile; corolla abaxial lip lobes subequal23  Allostigma    异片苣苔属
   
43(38)Subshrubs or rarely lianas, usually epiphytic, less frequently epipetric or terrestrial; seeds with 1 appendage at each end48  Lysionotus    吊石苣苔属
+Herbs, rarely subshrubs (rarely shrubs outside China), always terrestrial or epipetric; seeds unappendaged.(44)
   
44(43)Anthers basifixed, thecae parallel, not confluent at apex; bracts 2, forming a globose to ovoid involucre.(45)
+Anthers dorsifixed, thecae divaricate, confluent at apex; bracts 2, not forming an involucre, rarely up to 7 and whorled, 1, or absent.(46)
   
45(44)Ovary 1-loculed; placenta parietal; capsule dehiscing on both sides; corolla inside glabrous; tube somewhat gibbous abaxially, adaxial lip inconspicuous, much shorter than abaxial lip24  Metabriggsia    单座苣苔属
+Ovary 2-loculed, only adaxial locule fertile; placenta axile; capsule dehiscing only adaxially; corolla inside usually with a ring of hairs; tube not swollen, adaxial lip shorter than to nearly as long as abaxial25  Hemiboea    半蒴苣苔属
   
46(44)Stamens adnate to abaxial side of corolla tube near or above middle; capsule valves straight, not twisted.(47)
+Stamens adnate to abaxial side of corolla tube near base; capsule valves usually at least slightly twisted.(48)
   
47(46)Stigma abaxial, 2-lobed to undivided32  Chirita    唇柱苣苔属
+Stigma terminal, undivided35  Didymocarpus    长蒴苣苔属
   
48(46)Anthers dehiscing transversely; disc cupular; stigma ligulate; calyx zygomorphic43  Trisepalum    唇萼苣苔属
+Anthers dehiscing longitudinally from straight or arcuate slits; disc inconspicuous or ringlike; stigma capitate, seldom subligulate; calyx actinomorphic, rarely slightly zygomorphic.(49)
   
49(48)Leaf blade adaxially woolly to glabrous, abaxially woolly, pannose, or velutinous, hairs interwoven, usually branched; corolla inside glabrous to glandular puberulent; tube longer than to occasionally nearly equalling limb40  Paraboea    蛛毛苣苔属
+Leaf blade puberulent to woolly, hairs unbranched; corolla inside bearded, tube shorter than limb42  Ornithoboea    喜雀苣苔属
   
50(37)Corolla adaxial lip 4-lobed, abaxial lip undivided.(51)
+Corolla adaxial lip 2-lobed, rarely undivided, abaxial lip 3-lobed, rarely 4-lobed.(52)
   
51(50)Inflorescences dense umbel-like cymes; corolla tube 4-5 X longer than limb, adaxial lip longer than abaxial; stamens adnate to corolla tube above middle38  Calcareoboea    朱红苣苔属
+Inflorescences lax cymes; corolla tube shorter than limb, adaxial lip slightly shorter than abaxial; stamens adnate to corolla tube near base39  Allocheilos    异唇苣苔属
   
52(50)Anthers dehiscing transversely; stigma 1, ligulate; capsule valves spirally twisted43  Trisepalum    唇萼苣苔属
+Anthers dehiscing longitudinally; stigmas 1 or 2, if 1 then usually capitate, globose, disclike, truncate, lamelliform, oblate, or obtrapeziform, rarely linear or subligulate; capsule valves straight or twisted.(53)
   
53(52)Corolla adaxial lip undivided.(54)
+Corolla adaxial lip 2-lobed.(55)
   
54(53)Corolla tube tubular to funnelform-tubular, longer than limb; stamens exserted, anthers basifixed, free or coherent at apex, thecae parallel, not confluent; leaf blade base broadly cuneate to subrounded29  Deinocheilos    全唇苣苔属
+Corolla tube broadly tubular, nearly equalling limb; stamens included, anthers dorsifixed, coherent by adaxial surfaces, thecae divaricate, confluent at apex; leaf blade base cordate36  Gyrocheilos    圆唇苣苔属
   
55(53)Anthers basifixed or if dorsifixed then stamens slightly exserted, thecae parallel.(56)
+Anthers dorsifixed or nearly so, stamens included, thecae divaricate.(58)
   
56(55)Anthers dorsifixed, stamens slightly exserted; placentas undivided; inflorescences monochasial cymes, 1- or 2-flowered20  Dayaoshania    瑶山苣苔属
+Anthers basifixed, stamens included; placentas projecting inward, 2-cleft; inflorescences cymes, sometimes umbel-like, 1- to many flowered.(57)
   
57(56)Corolla tube 1.5-4 X longer than limb, 3.5-17 mm in diam.; stamens adnate to adaxial side of corolla tube near middle, rarely near base; ovary and capsule linear19  Opithandra    后蕊苣苔属
+Corolla tube shorter than limb, 2-5 mm in diam.; stamens adnate to abaxial side of corolla tube near base; ovary conical to broadly ovoid; capsule narrowly ellipsoid to oblong to ovoid27  Petrocosmea    石蝴蝶属
   
58(55)Anthers free, thecae not confluent; capsule nearly globose; leaf blade base rounded, peltate28  Metapetrocosmea    盾叶苣苔属
+Anthers coherent, thecae confluent at apex; capsule linear to narrowly ovoid, ellipsoid, or oblong; leaf blade base attenuate to cordate, rarely auriculate or auriculate-peltate.(59)
   
59(58)Stigmas 2; corolla lobe apex acute30  Lagarosolen    细筒苣苔属
+Stigma 1; corolla lobe apex rounded, seldom obtuse or acute.(60)
   
60(59)Capsule valves spirally twisted or seldom straight, if straight leaf blade abaxially woolly, pannose, or velutinous, hairs dense, interwoven, usually branched.(61)
+Capsule valves straight, not twisted; leaf blade abaxially strigose or puberulent to villous, velutinous, or woolly.(62)
   
61(60)Capsule valves 4; leaf blade abaxially woolly, pannose, or velutinous, hairs very dense, interwoven, usually branched40  Paraboea    蛛毛苣苔属
+Capsule valves 2; leaf blade villous to puberulent, hairs dense, not interwoven or branched41  Boea    旋蒴苣苔属
   
62(60)Corolla tube slightly shorter than to nearly equalling limb, lobes acute37  Dolicholoma    长檐苣苔属
+Corolla tube longer to much longer than limb, lobes rounded, obtuse, or acute.(63)
   
63(62)Ovary ovoid or narrowly ovoid; capsule narrowly ovoid to ellipsoid, equalling to shorter than calyx.(64)
+Ovary linear; capsule linear to very narrowly ovoid, much surpassing calyx.(65)
   
64(63)Corolla nearly salverform, tube cylindric, adaxial lip slightly shorter than abaxial31  Primulina    报春苣苔属
+Corolla tube nearly tubular, adaxial lip slightly to 2-3 X shorter than abaxial33  Chiritopsis    小花苣苔属
   
65(63)Corolla tube suburceolate-tubular, 1-2.5 mm in diam., limb indistinctly 2-lipped, adaxial lip slightly shorter than abaxial; lobe apex acute; stamens adnate to abaxial side of corolla tube slightly above base34  Petrocodon    石山苣苔属
+Corolla tube funnelform-tubular to campanulate or cylindric, 2-20 mm in diam., limb 2-lipped; adaxial lip slightly to 1.5-3.5 X shorter than abaxial; lobe apex rounded, rarely obtuse to acute; stamens adnate to abaxial side of corolla tube near or above m(66)
   
66(65)Stigma abaxial, 2-lobed to undivided32  Chirita    唇柱苣苔属
+Stigma terminal, undivided35  Didymocarpus    长蒴苣苔属
   
   List of lower taxa