foc
《中国植物志》英文修订版
Flora of China
  FOC Vol.7 (2008)              | Family List  Lauraceae  PDF     |  eFloras.org Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   7. Lauraceae  
樟科   zhang ke
  
Authors:Authors: Shugang Li, Xi-wen Li, Jie Li, Puhua Huang, Fa-Nan Wei, Hongbin Cui & Henk van der Werff

  

Trees or shrubs (Cassytha a twining parasitic perennial herb with leaves reduced or absent), mostly evergreen (deciduous in temperate regions), sometimes dioecious. Bark and foliage usually aromatic. Leaves usually alternate, occasionally opposite or subopposite or verticillate, simple, usually entire, rarely lobed (Sassafras), mostly pinninerved and subpalmately veined, or often triplinerved, usually punctate and leathery, estipulate. Flowers in usually axillary, occasionally subterminal, panicles, spikes, racemes, or pseudoumbels, generally bisexual, sometimes unisexual, actinomorphic, mostly 3-merous, also 2-merous, small, greenish, yellowish, or white. Perianth biseriate, of usually 4 or 6 basally connate usually undifferentiated sepal-like segments, deciduous or persistent; perianth tube usually persisting as a cupule at base of fruit. Androecium typically of 4 whorls of 3 stamens each, adnate to perianth tube, innermost whorl rarely united, usually reduced to staminodes; filaments usually free, 3rd whorl usually bearing 2 usually sessile and distinct basal glandular protuberances; anthers basifixed, 2-celled or 4-celled at anthesis, those of 2 outer whorls mostly introrse, inner 3rd whorl extrorse, dehiscing by flaplike valves opening upward. Pistil 1; ovary usually superior, 1-loculed; ovule solitary, anatropous, pendulous, placentation parietal; style 1; stigma 1, occasionally 2- or 3-lobed. Fruit a drupe or berry usually surrounded at base by enlarged and often persistent perianth tube seated on a large receptacle or pedicel. Seed with large straight embryo; endosperm absent.

About 45 genera and 2000-2500 species: tropical and subtropical regions but mostly in tropical SE Asia and tropical America; 25 genera (two endemic, two introduced) and 445 species (316 endemic, three introduced) in China; two additional species (one endemic) are of uncertain placement.

The Lauraceae are economically important as sources of medicine, timber, nutritious fruits (e.g., Persea americana), spices (e.g., Cinnamomum cassia, C. subavenium, Laurus nobilis), and perfumes. The fruits of Actinodaphne, Cinnamomum, Cryptocarya, Lindera, Litsea, and Syndiclis contain abundant oil and fat. Cinnamomum trees, such as Cinnamomum camphora, C. glanduliferum, and C. parthenoxylon, yield camphor and essential oil, which are used for making perfumes and medicines. The bark of C. cassia and the roots of Lindera aggregata are famous traditional Chinese medicines.

The Lauraceae are economically important as sources of medicine, timber, nutritious fruits (e.g., Persea americana), spices (e.g., Cinnamomum cassia, C. subavenium, Laurus nobilis), and perfumes. The fruits of Actinodaphne, Cinnamomum, Cryptocarya, Lindera, Litsea, and Syndiclis contain abundant oil and fat. Cinnamomum trees, such as Cinnamomum camphora, C. glanduliferum, and C. parthenoxylon, yield camphor and essential oil, which are used for making perfumes and medicines. The bark of C. cassia and the roots of Lindera aggregata are famous traditional Chinese medicines.

  
1Twining parasitic vines.25  Cassytha    无根藤属
+Leafy trees or shrubs(2)
   
2(1)Flowers unisexual, rarely bisexual, in pseudoumbels or racemes, rarely solitary; bracts large, forming an involucre(3)
+Flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, in panicles or clusters, rarely in pseudoumbels; bracts small, not forming an involucre(10)
   
3(2)Flowers 2-merous; perianth lobes 4(4)
+Flowers 3-merous; perianth lobes 6(5)
   
4(3)Male flowers 12 stamens in 3 whorls, all stamens or those of 2nd and 3rd whorl glandular, anthers 2-celled; female flowers staminodes 4.1  Laurus    月桂属
+Male flowers 6 stamens in 3 whorls, only those of 3rd whorl glandular, anthers 4-celled; female flowers staminodes 6.2  Neolitsea    新木姜子属
   
5(3)Bracts of involucre imbricate, caducous or late deciduous(6)
+Bracts of involucre decussate, persistent or late deciduous(7)
   
6(5)Deciduous habit; leaves alternate, unlobed or 2- or 3-lobed; inflorescence of racemes.7  Sassafras    檫木属
+Evergreen habit; leaves usually whorled, rarely opposite or alternate, unlobed; inflorescence of umbels.8  Actinodaphne    黄肉楠属
   
7(5)Anthers 4-celled(8)
+Anthers 2-celled(9)
   
8(7)Inflorescence many flowered.3  Litsea    木姜子属
+Inflorescence 1-flowered.4  Dodecadenia    单花木姜子属
   
9(7)Flowers functionally unisexual; umbel mostly many flowered.5  Lindera    山胡椒属
+Flowers unisexual or polygamous; pseudoumbel 1-flowered.6  Iteadaphne    单花山胡椒属
   
10(2)Anthers (1 or)2-celled(11)
+Anthers 4-celled(16)
   
11(10)Fruit enveloped by dilated perianth tube.24  Cryptocarya    厚壳桂属
+Fruit not enveloped by perianth tube(12)
   
12(11)Flowers 2-merous; perianth lobes 4; fertile stamens 4.23  Syndiclis    油果樟属
+Flowers 3-merous; perianth lobes 6; fertile stamens 3 or 9(13)
   
13(12)Flowers functionally unisexual, in pseudoumbels.19  Sinosassafras    华檫木属
+Flowers bisexual, in panicles(14)
   
14(13)Fertile stamens 3.20  Endiandra    土楠属
+Fertile stamens 6 or 9(15)
   
15(14)Tepals longer than stamens; stamens included in flower; anther cells laterally opening, slit-like.21  Beilschmiedia    琼楠属
+Tepals shorter than stamens; stamens exserted from flower; anther cells apically opening, small, roundish.22  Sinopora    孔药楠属
   
16(10)Perianth tube forming a perianth cup when in fruit(17)
+Perianth tube not forming a perianth cup when in fruit(19)
   
17(16)Flowers in umbels.9  Parasassafras    拟檫木属
+Flowers in panicles or glomerules(18)
   
18(17)Flowers in panicles; anther cells in pairs above each other; perianth lobes deciduous or persistent but not thickened when in fruit; leaves alternate or subopposite, pinninerved, trinerved, or triplinerved.10  Cinnamomum    樟属
+Flowers in glomerules; anther cells in an arc or in pairs above each other, lower 2 cells large and lateral; perianth lobes persistent and dilated when in fruit; leaves alternate, triplinerved.11  Neocinnamomum    新樟属
   
19(16)Perianth lobes persistent when in fruit(20)
+Perianth lobes deciduous when in fruit(22)
   
20(19)Persistent perianth lobes soft, longer, reflexed or patent, not tightly clasped at fruit base.14  Machilus    润楠属
+Persistent perianth lobes durable, shorter, erect or patent, tightly clasped at fruit base(21)
   
21(20)Perianth lobes equal in size, sometimes outer 3 somewhat smaller; filaments long.12  Phoebe    楠属
+Perianth lobes unequal in size, outer 3 conspicuously smaller; filaments very short.13  Nothaphoebe    赛楠属
   
22(19)Fruit stalk dilated, fleshy, always colored; anthers 2-celled.15  Dehaasia    莲桂属
+Fruit stalk barely or not dilated; if fruit stalk dilated, anthers 4-celled(23)
   
23(22)Leaves opposite, trinerved or triplinerved; perianth lobes unequal in size, outer 3 smaller.16  Caryodaphnopsis    檬果樟属
+Leaves alternate, pinninerved; perianth lobes equal or subequal in size(24)
   
24(23)Perianth large; fruit fleshy, large-sized; plants cultivated.17  Persea    鳄梨属
+Perianth small- or medium-sized; fruit somewhat fleshy, small- to medium-sized; plants native.18  Alseodaphne    油丹属
   
   List of lower taxa