foc
《中国植物志》英文修订版
Flora of China
  FOC Vol.7 (2008)              | Family List  Menispermaceae  PDF     |  eFloras.org Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   1. Menispermaceae  
防己科   fang ji ke
  
Authors:Authors: Qiming Hu, Xianrui Luo, Tao Chen & Michael G. Gilbert

  

Climbing or twining vines, rarely erect shrubs or small trees; indumentum of simple hairs, often absent. Stems striate, without spines; wood often with radial pith rays. Leaves alternate, spiral; stipules absent; petiole swollen at base and apex; leaf blade simple, sometimes palmately lobed, rarely trifoliolate, venation often palmate, less often pinnate. Inflorescences axillary, sometimes from old wood, rarely superaxillary or terminal, often umbelliform cymes, rarely reduced to single flower or flowers in a head on a discoid receptacle, arranged in thyrses, compound umbels, or racemelike; bracts usually small, rarely leafy (female Cocculus). Flowers unisexual (plants dioecious), usually small, inconspicuous, mostly pedicellate. Sepals often in whorls of (2 or)3(or 4), rarely reduced to 1 (female Stephania), sometimes spirally arranged (Hypserpa, Menispermum), free or less often connate, imbricate or valvate. Petals usually 3 or 6 in 1 or 2 whorls, rarely 2 or 4, sometimes reduced to 1 or absent, usually free, rarely connate, imbricate or valvate. Stamens (2-)6-8(to many); filaments free or connate, sometimes stamens completely fused into synandrium; anthers 1- or 2-locular or apparently 4-locular, dehiscing longitudinally or transversely. Staminodes sometimes present in female flowers. Carpels 1-6[to many], free, often swollen on one side; style initially terminal; stigma lobed or divided, rarely entire. Ovules 2 reducing to 1 by abortion. Pistillodes very small or absent in male flower. Fruit a drupe, straight or often horseshoe-shaped; exocarp membranous or leathery; mesocarp usually fleshy; endocarp bony or sometimes woody, rarely leathery, surface usually variously ornamented, rarely smooth, sides usually with central smooth and sunken condyle, rarely inconspicuous or lacking (e.g., Tinomiscium). Seed usually curved; seed coat thin; endosperm present or absent; embryo mostly curved (straight in Tinomiscium); radicle small, opposite to style scar; cotyledons flat and foliaceous or thick and semiterete.

About 65 genera and 350 species: tropical, subtropical, and few temperate regions; 19 genera and 77 species (43 endemic) in China.

Plants of the family contain many different alkaloids and are famous for their medicinal usages. Some species, such as Pericampylus glaucus and Sinomenium acutum, are used for making rattan articles in Sichuan.

Plants of the family contain many different alkaloids and are famous for their medicinal usages. Some species, such as Pericampylus glaucus and Sinomenium acutum, are used for making rattan articles in Sichuan.

  
1Leaf blade venation pinnate, with main lateral veins inserted distinctly above base, never peltate; petiole scars conspicuously discoid or cuplike(2)
+Leaf blade venation palmate, with lowermost lateral veins inserted at base of blade or at petiole insertion if peltate, usually more prominent than other lateral veins; petiole scars not conspicuous(4)
   
2(1)Inner whorl of male sepals fused into tube, 5-7 mm; stamens 18-27, fused into conical synandrium; female infructescence usually 1-flowered; drupe with style scar close to base; lateral veins 3-5 pairs.3  Albertisia    崖藤属
+Male sepals all free, imbricate, 1.5-2.8 mm; stamens 4-18, free or with only filaments fused; female inflorescence with several flowers; drupe with style scar distant from base; lateral veins 5-10 pairs(3)
   
3(2)Stamens (2-)4-11(-18), filaments fused for most of length; drupe 1.1-2 cm, not stipitate.1  Pycnarrhena    密花藤属
+Stamens 6, filaments free; drupe 2.5-3 cm, with ca. 1.5 cm stipe.2  Eleutharrhena    藤枣属
   
4(1)Flowers and fruits in pedunculate umbel-like cymes or discoid heads, these often in compound umbels, sometimes forming a terminal thyrse by reduction of apical leaves, rarely a slender axillary thyrse of heads (Stephania tetrandra).17  Stephania    千斤藤属
+Flowers and fruits in cymes, these flat-topped or in elongated thyrses, sometimes racemelike(5)
   
5(4)Adaxial leaf surface very finely and closely striate; inflorescence racemose, on leafless stems, usually ferruginous tomentose; male flower with 3 pistillodes; petals 2-2.5(-3.5) mm, deeply emarginate.5  Tinomiscium    大叶藤属
+Adaxial leaf surface not striate; inflorescence cymose, sometimes racemelike but with flowers in small cymes or fascicles; male flower without pistillodes; petals 0.2-2 mm (rarely to 2.5 mm in Tinospora crispa)(6)
   
6(5)Plant male(7)
+Plant female (based mainly on fruits, female flowers of several taxa not seen)(20)
   
7(6)Stamens fused into ± peltate synandrium with anthers in a marginal ring(8)
+Stamens free or with filaments fused at base only, anthers free, not fused into ring(11)
   
8(7)Leaves not peltate(9)
+Leaves peltate(10)
   
9(8)Inflorescence longer than leaves, up to 30(-50) cm; sepals usually 12 in 4 whorls, outermost minute, inner whorls spatulate to obovate.7  Aspidocarya    球果藤属
+Inflorescence shorter than leaves, 3-10 cm; sepals 6 in 2 whorls, subequal.9  Parabaena    连蕊藤属
   
10(8)Petals connate into cup; sepals free; inflorescence a pedunculate flat-topped cyme.18  Cissampelos    锡生藤属
+Petals connate or free, rarely absent; sepals usually connate, rarely free; inflorescence a slender axillary racemelike or paniclelike thyrse.19  Cyclea    轮环藤属
   
11(7)Petals absent(12)
+Petals present(13)
   
12(11)Inflorescence 5-8 cm; stamens 9-12, in a sessile cluster; wood not yellow.4  Arcangelisia    古山龙属
+Inflorescence to 30 cm; stamens 3 or 6, free, filaments thick with a prominent collar below anther; wood yellow.6  Fibraurea    天仙藤属
   
13(11)Stems herbaceous; stamens 12-18[-36].16  Menispermum    蝙蝠葛属
+Stems woody; stamens 5-10(-12)(14)
   
14(13)Sepals 7-12, spiral, not in distinct whorls.10  Hypserpa    夜花藤属
+Sepals in 2 or 3 distinct whorls of 3 or 4(15)
   
15(14)Leaf blade never lobed, with main basal veins and their outer branches leading directly to margin(16)
+Leaf blade lobed or, if not lobed, with main basal veins dividing or fusing before reaching margin(17)
   
16(15)Sepals unmarked, outer whorl much smaller than inner whorl.11  Pericampylus    细圆藤属
+Sepals with prominent dark reticulum when dried, outer whorl subequal to inner whorl.12  Diploclisia    秤钩风属
   
17(15)Petal apex 2-lobed.13  Cocculus    木防己属
+Petal apex not lobed(18)
   
18(17)Inflorescences not appearing with leaves, glabrous.8  Tinospora    青牛胆属
+Inflorescences borne with leaves, pubescent to tomentose(19)
   
19(18)Flowers sessile or subsessile; stamens 6, anthers dehiscing transversely.14  Pachygone    粉绿藤属
+Flowers clearly pedicellate; stamens 9(or 12), anthers dehiscing longitudinally, nearly apically.15  Sinomenium    风龙属
   
20(6)Material with fruits(21)
+Material with female flowers (female flowers are not known for Arcangelisia and Fibraurea in China)(34)
   
21(20)Seed and seed cavity straight, sometimes broad and concave(22)
+Seed and seed cavity strongly curved, crescent- or horseshoe-shaped to almost ringlike(26)
   
22(21)Drupe 2.2-5.5 cm with style scar on one side, borne on clavate carpophore to 4 cm; endocarp with fibrous covering and apparently hairy; leaf blade with abaxial domatia in axils of main veins.4  Arcangelisia    古山龙属
+Drupe with terminal style scar; endocarp smooth or sculptured, not fibrous; leaf blade usually without domatia, or only present in basal vein axils(23)
   
23(22)Endocarp clearly spiny.9  Parabaena    连蕊藤属
+Endocarp ± smooth or rugose to bluntly papillate(24)
   
24(23)Lowermost lateral veins of leaf blade arising several mm above base; endocarp subellipsoid, 2-2.5 cm, condyle forming narrow groove adaxially; inflorescence a lax panicle with branches to 12 cm; wood yellow.6  Fibraurea    天仙藤属
+Lowermost lateral veins truly basal; endocarp flattened and without condyle or subglobose with condyle forming adaxial cavity with a central opening; inflorescence a narrow panicle with branches to 3 cm; wood not yellow(25)
   
25(24)Endocarp flattened and without conspicuous condyle.7  Aspidocarya    球果藤属
+Endocarp subglobose with condyle forming adaxial cavity with a central opening.8  Tinospora    青牛胆属
   
26(21)Carpel 1(27)
+Carpels 2-6(28)
   
27(26)Bracts persistent and accrescent to 1.5 cm, often concealing much smaller fruits.18  Cissampelos    锡生藤属
+Bracts minute, much smaller than fruits.19  Cyclea    轮环藤属
   
28(26)Inflorescences on old woody stems or superaxillary on leafy shoots.12  Diploclisia    秤钩风属
+Inflorescences axillary on leafy stems(29)
   
29(28)Endocarp almost smooth with a small central perforation; seed with large cotyledons, endosperm absent.14  Pachygone    粉绿藤属
+Endocarp usually clearly sculptured; seed with slender cotyledons, endosperm copious(30)
   
30(29)Leaves peltate; endocarp ca. 10 mm in diam., rather flattened.16  Menispermum    蝙蝠葛属
+Leaves never peltate; endocarp 4-8 mm in diam., not obviously flattened(31)
   
31(30)Endocarp laterally concave, condyle lamella-shaped or disciform, not perforate or with small eccentric perforation(32)
+Endocarp with thick hollow condyle, often perforate(33)
   
32(31)Leaf blade never lobed, main basal veins and their outer branches leading directly to margin; endocarp abaxially covered with short pointed processes.11  Pericampylus    细圆藤属
+Leaf blade lobed or, if not lobed, main basal veins and their outer branches divided or fused before reaching margin; endocarp with abaxial and lateral ridged crests.15  Sinomenium    风龙属
   
33(31)Carpels 2 or 3; drupes 6-8 mm.10  Hypserpa    夜花藤属
+Carpels 3 or 6; drupes 4-5 mm.13  Cocculus    木防己属
   
34(20)Petals absent(35)
+Petals present(36)
   
35(34)Leaf blade abaxially with hollow domatia in axils of main veins; wood not yellow.4  Arcangelisia    古山龙属
+Leaf blade abaxially without domatia; wood yellow.6  Fibraurea    天仙藤属
   
36(34)Petals apically 2-lobed(37)
+Petals apically entire(38)
   
37(36)Sepals with black and striped marks, outer whorl subequal to inner whorl; leaf blade ca. as long as wide.12  Diploclisia    秤钩风属
+Sepals without black marks, outer whorl much smaller than inner whorl; leaf blade often conspicuously longer than wide.13  Cocculus    木防己属
   
38(36)Sepals and petals 1 or 2; carpels 1; leaves often peltate(39)
+Sepals and petals each 3 or more; carpels 3; leaves usually not peltate (peltate in Menispermum and Parabaena)(40)
   
39(38)Bracts leaflike, overlapping along rachis.18  Cissampelos    锡生藤属
+Bracts inconspicuous, not overlapping.19  Cyclea    轮环藤属
   
40(38)Sepals spiral(41)
+Sepals whorled(42)
   
41(40)Petals 4 or 5; staminodes absent; leaves not peltate.10  Hypserpa    夜花藤属
+Petals 6-9; staminodes 6-12; leaves peltate.16  Menispermum    蝙蝠葛属
   
42(40)Leaves obviously peltate.14  Pachygone    粉绿藤属
+Leaves not or only very narrowly peltate(43)
   
43(42)Inner and outer sepals subequal.9  Parabaena    连蕊藤属
+Inner sepals much larger than outer(44)
   
44(43)Sepals 6 in 2 whorls(45)
+Sepals 8-12 in 3 or 4 whorls(46)
   
45(44)Staminodes 9; style curved outward, stigma expanded and lobed.15  Sinomenium    风龙属
+Staminodes 6; style short, fat and thick, stigma reflexed with short pointed lobes.8  Tinospora    青牛胆属
   
46(44)Inflorescence a cyme; staminodes filamentous.11  Pericampylus    细圆藤属
+Inflorescence a panicle, usually very long; staminodes clavate.7  Aspidocarya    球果藤属
   
   List of lower taxa