Flora of China
  FOC Vol.13 (2007)              | Family List  Thymelaeaceae  PDF Wikstroemia  PDF   | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   2. Wikstroemia  Endlicher
荛花属   rao hua shu
Authors:Wang Yinzheng (王印政); Michael G. Gilbert

Capura Linnaeus; Diplomorpha Meisner.


Shrubs or subshrubs, occasionally small trees or rarely a herbaceous perennial (W. linoides), evergreen or deciduous. Leaves opposite or alternate. Inflorescence usually terminal and subterminal, rarely axillary, fascicled or solitary, spicate, racemose, umbelliform or capitate, sometimes in compound terminal panicles, often without involucre; peduncle long or short. Flowers bisexual or unisexual (Hawaii), 4- or 5-merous, subsessile or distinctly pedicellate; pedicel articulate. Calyx tube yellow or green, less often purplish, red or white, cylindric or tubular, sometimes slightly funnel-shaped, often caducous after anthesis, sometimes persistent; lobes 4 or 5, spreading. Petaloid appendages absent. Stamens twice as many as calyx lobes, in two series; filaments very short; anthers oblong, upper sometimes slightly exserted; connectives indistinct. Disk with 2 or 4, very rarely 1 or 5, scales, rarely joined at base by very narrow annulus, membranous. Ovary sessile, rarely shortly stipitate, usually ellipsoid, glabrous or hairy at apex, 1-loculed; style terminal, short, distinct or obscure; stigma large, capitate, globose, or discoid. Fruit a succulent berry or rather dry. Endosperm scanty or absent; cotyledons fleshy.

About 70 species: E Asia, Malaysia, Australia, and Pacific islands with a significant minor center of diversity in Hawaii where many species are dioecious; 49 species (43 endemic) in China.

The separation of Wikstroemia from the following genus, Daphne, is problematic. Features such as leaf arrangement, inflorescence type, and flower color are all clearly paralleled within the two genera and are of no diagnostic value, although they are mentioned in most keys to these genera. In most cases, the nature of the hypogynal disk is diagnostic, but even here there are species where the interpretation of the structure of the disk is difficult. For example, the distinction between the lateral ± square disk seen in several species of Daphne and species of Wikstroemia with a single large disk scale, or species of Wikstroemia in which the disk scales are connected by a narrow annulus, or species of Daphne with very deeply divided disks makes the division seem rather arbitrary, such that there must be a good case for combining these two genera, as was done by Halda (Genus Daphne. 2001). A review of generic delimitations in the family based on molecular data would be very desirable.

Wikstroemia ganpi (Siebold & Zuccarini) Maximowicz was indicated by Halda (loc. cit.: 158, as Daphne ganpi (Siebold & Zuccarini) Halda) to occur in Taiwan, but this species has not been recorded by botanists from Taiwan, and the basis of the record was not indicated.

Wikstroemia bodinieri H. Léveillé is a synonym of Alyxia schlechteri H. Léveillé in the Apocynaceae (see Fl. China 16: 162. 1995). Wikstroemia hemsleyana H. Léveillé is a synonym of Alstonia mairei H. Léveillé also in the Apocynaceae (loc. cit.: 156).

1Calyx exterior glabrous (rarely with a few scattered hairs), often caducous after anthesis(2)
+Calyx tube exterior hairy, often persistent and enclosing fruit(20)
2(1)Flowers 5-merous(3)
+Flowers 4-merous(11)
3(2)Leaves always alternate, sometimes very close spaced and apparently whorled, blade 1-1.5 mm wide.43  W. linearifolia    线叶荛花
+Leaves at least partly opposite, blade at least 3 mm wide(4)
4(3)Inflorescences clustered into a head; lateral veins 3-7 per side of midrib(5)
+Inflorescence a raceme or panicle, or spike; lateral veins 6-12 per side of midrib or obscure(6)
5(4)Older branches pale reddish or brownish gray; leaf blade with lateral veins 3 or 4 per side of midrib; disk apex entire or slightly retuse.41  W. fargesii    城口荛花
+Older branches dark purple-brown; leaf blade with lateral veins 5-7 per side of midrib; disk apex irregularly deeply or shallowly lobed.42  W. fuminensis    富民荛花
6(4)Inflorescence a solitary raceme(7)
+Inflorescence a panicle, lax or dense(9)
7(6)Peduncle 2-4 cm; racemes terminal and axillary.44  W. scytophylla    革叶荛花
+Peduncle 0.7-1.1 cm; racemes terminal, 3-7-flowered(8)
8(7)Leaf blade 1-2 cm wide, leathery or thinly so; calyx yellow.45  W. huidongensis    会东荛花
+Leaf blade 0.3-0.8 cm wide, membranous; calyx white.46  W. anhuiensis    安徽荛花
9(6)Panicle dense, spicate; leaves closely spaced, blade leathery, lateral veins white and prominent; calyx yellow.47  W. lamatsoensis    金丝桃荛花
+Panicle lax; leaves not closely spaced; leaf blade papery, lateral veins not white and prominent; calyx white or yellowish green(10)
10(9)Leaf blade 1-2.2(-3.5) cm wide; calyx tube 6-8 mm.48  W. trichotoma    白花荛花
+Leaf blade 0.3-0.6 cm wide; calyx tube 12-13 mm.49  W. leptophylla    细叶荛花
11(2)Leaves alternate, rarely subopposite(12)
+Leaves mostly truly opposite(15)
12(11)Inflorescence a much branched panicle.6  W. longipaniculata    长锥序荛花
+Inflorescence a compact head or raceme(13)
13(12)Calyx white or pink to purplish red; inflorescence bracteate.10  W. glabra    光叶荛花
+Calyx yellow, yellow-green or green; inflorescence ebracteate(14)
14(13)Biennial or perennial herb or subshrub; leaf blade 1.2-2.5 × 0.3-0.8 cm.7  W. linoides    亚麻荛花
+Shrub, sometimes dwarf; leaf blade 3-8 × 0.7-2.8(-4) cm.11  W. nutans    细轴荛花
15(11)Young stems pubescent or puberulous(16)
+Young stems glabrous(18)
16(15)Calyx tube 4-7 mm.3  W. chui    窄叶荛花
+Calyx tube 12-15 mm(17)
17(16)Leaf blade elliptic, ovate, or ovate-lanceolate, 4-10 × 2-3.3 cm.4  W. hainanensis    海南荛花
+Leaf blade oblong-obovate to lanceolate, 1.5-3 × 0.3-0.8 cm.12  W. salicina    柳状荛花
18(15)Leaf blade 0.8-2.5 × 0.2-1.2 cm, ± leathery.8  W. angustifolia    岩杉树
+Leaf blade 3-20 × 1.5-9 cm, membranous to papery(19)
19(18)Leaf blade 13-20 × 4.5-9 cm; peduncle 2-6 cm; calyx lobes 5-6 mm.2  W. liangii    大叶荛花
+Leaf blade 3-6(-8.5) × 1.5-2.5(-4) cm; peduncle 0.7-2 cm, slender, pendulous; calyx lobes ca. 3 mm.11  W. nutans    细轴荛花
20(1)Flowers 5-merous(21)
+Flowers 4-merous(23)
21(20)Inflorescences always axillary.38  W. paxiana    懋功荛花
+Inflorescences mostly terminal, often on lateral branches, sometimes also axillary(22)
22(21)Stems yellow, leaves sometimes opposite; flowers shortly pedicellate.40  W. pilosa    多毛荛花
+Stems purple-red; leaves always alternate; flowers sessile.39  W. dolichantha    一把香
23(20)Flowers in terminal and short, subapical, lateral fascicles forming a leafy thyrse; hypogynal disk scale very broad, almost annular, deeply 7-10-lobed.37  W. subcyclolepidota    亚环鳞荛花
+Flowers in terminal and subterminal spikes or racemes, sometimes grouped into panicles, or axillary; hypogynal disk annular or cupular or scales 1-4, linear or oblong, apically lobed or toothed(24)
24(23)Herbaceous perennial.7  W. linoides    亚麻荛花
+Shrub, sometimes dwarf(25)
25(24)Leaves mostly alternate, rarely also subopposite, very rarely a few opposite(26)
+Leaves mostly opposite or subopposite, sometimes also alternate(37)
26(25)Inflorescence a panicle of terminal and subterminal spikes or heads; lateral leaf veins often obscure(27)
+Inflorescence a head elongating into a short raceme during anthesis, or a 1-4-flowered fascicle terminal on lateral branches; lateral leaf veins distinct(29)
27(26)Calyx 3.5-4 mm; leaf blade linear to narrowly oblong, 2-5 mm wide, adaxially glabrous.32  W. cochlearifolia    匙叶荛花
+Calyx 8-9 mm; leaf blade elliptic or obovate-elliptic or narrowly elliptic, 3-8(-15) mm wide, adaxially hairy(28)
28(27)Leaf blade adaxially tomentose; ovary densely appressed hirsute; disk scales 2, unequal, apex 2- or 3-toothed.31  W. pampaninii    鄂北荛花
+Leaf blade adaxially sericeous; ovary glabrous except for pilose apex; disk scale 1, apex obtuse to truncate, finely dentate or irregularly crenulate.20  W. haoi    武都荛花
29(26)Inflorescence a 1-4-flowered fascicle(30)
+Inflorescences elongating during anthesis, mostly more than 4-flowered; ovary completely pubescent; bud globose, densely white pubescent; flowers yellow(34)
30(29)Both surfaces of leaf blade glabrous, membranous(31)
+Both surfaces of leaf blade pubescent(32)
31(30)Leaf blade oblong to elliptic, 0.8-1.8 × 0.4-1.1 cm; calyx yellow.27  W. baimashanensis    白马山荛花
+Leaf blade broadly elliptic to obovate, 2-5 × 1-2.5 cm; calyx pale green.26  W. techinensis    德钦荛花
32(30)Leaf blade 1-2.5 mm wide.28  W. sinoparviflora    小花荛花
+Leaf blade 4-12 mm wide(33)
33(32)Leaf blade 3-3.8 × 0.9-1.2 cm.29  W. alternifolia    互生叶荛花
+Leaf blade 0.7-1.2 × 0.4-0.7 cm.30  W. lungtzeensis    隆子荛花
34(29)Ovary sessile; leaf blade appressed sericeous.33  W. capitatoracemosa    短总序荛花
+Ovary stipitate; leaf blade pubescent at least on midrib, sometimes glabrescent(35)
35(34)Leaf blade glabrescent, reticulate veins abaxially obscure.34  W. ligustrina    白腊叶荛花
+Leaf blade persistently pubescent, at least on midrib, reticulate veins abaxially conspicuous(36)
36(35)Calyx ca. 15 mm, exterior with appressed and long sericeous pubescence; leaf blade 2-5 × 0.8-1.6 cm, lateral veins 5 or 6 pairs, abaxially conspicuous.35  W. canescens    荛花
+Calyx ca. 12 mm, exterior with appressed and short pubescence; leaf blade 1.5-3 × 0.5-1 cm, lateral veins 3 or 4 pairs, slender, abaxially obscure36  W. lichiangensis    丽江荛花
37(25)Leaf blade 1.5-2.5 mm wide, to 2.5 cm.23  W. stenophylla    轮叶荛花
+Leaf blade (2-)3-35 mm wide, if less than 3 mm, then at least 2.5 cm(38)
38(37)Calyx pink, purple, lilac, or lavender(39)
+Calyx yellow, greenish yellow, yellowish white, or green, sometimes flushed with purple or red(42)
39(38)Calyx 4-6 mm(40)
+Calyx 7-12 mm(41)
40(39)Ovary glabrous except for pilose apex; inflorescence ± paniculate, ca. 20-flowered.20  W. haoi    武都荛花
+Ovary uniformly hairy; inflorescence not paniculate, 3-5(-8)-flowered.21  W. vaccinium    平伐荛花
41(39)Leaf blade drying dark brown; lateral veins 4 or 5 per side; calyx tube 9-12 mm.17  W. monnula    北江荛花
+Leaf blade drying green, lateral veins 10 or 11 per side; calyx tube ca. 15 mm.1  W. mononectaria    独鳞荛花
42(38)Calyx 4-6 mm(43)
+Calyx 7-15 mm(44)
43(42)Calyx yellowish white or green, sometimes flushed with purple; tube slightly ovoid, 2-5 mm.15  W. taiwanensis    台湾荛花
+Calyx yellow; tube cylindric, 4-6 mm.9  W. micrantha    小黄构
44(42)Inflorescence a panicle of racemes(45)
+Inflorescence capitate or shortly racemose, sometimes indistinctly paniculate(48)
45(44)Leaf blade abaxially glabrous; calyx greenish yellow or creamy-yellow, sometimes flushed with purple, tube often less than 10 mm(46)
+Leaf blade abaxially hairy; calyx yellow, tube ca. 10 mm(47)
46(45)Leaf blade lanceolate-obovate, obovate, or oblanceolate, 1.6-2.5 cm wide; hypogynal disk annular, extended on one side into 1(-3) obovate scale(s).5  W. delavayi    澜沧荛花
+Leaf blade lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 0.2-1 cm wide; hypogynal disk scales 2(or 3), linear or oblong, basally connate.22  W. chamaedaphne    河朔荛花
47(45)Leaf blade elliptic or ovate-orbicular to oblong, 0.8-2.8 cm wide; hypogynal disk scales 2, one linear and one oblong.24  W. gracilis    纤细荛花
+Leaf blade narrowly oblanceolate to broadly linear, 0.4-0.8 cm wide; hypogynal disk scale 1, obovate, margin crenate.25  W. reginaldi-farreri    甘肃荛花
48(44)Lateral veins slender, dense, at a very narrow angle to midrib(49)
+Lateral veins remote, obscure, 5-7 pairs, at wide angle to midrib(50)
49(48)Leaf blade oblong to lanceolate, 5-15 mm wide, abaxially reddish brown when dried.14  W. indica    了哥王
+Leaf blade elliptic or oblong, apex broad, 4-9 mm wide, both surfaces glabrous, abaxially pale green.18  W. capitata    头序荛花
50(48)Leaf blade lanceolate, 0.8-1.2 cm wide; stems relatively slender.16  W. lanceolata    披针叶荛花
+Leaf blade obovate to oblong, 1.3-2.5 cm wide; stems relatively stout(51)
51(50)Inflorescence often 15-26-flowered, peduncle to 0.5 cm, stout.13  W. pachyrachis    粗轴荛花
+Inflorescence 4-6(-20)-flowered, peduncle 0.7-3 cm, slender.19  W. retusa    倒卵叶荛花
   List of lower taxa