Plants small to medium-sized, summer-green; rhizomes slender, creeping or ascending; costae articulate to rachis (in Gymnocarpium) or not so; lamina pinnate to 3(or 4)-pinnate-pinnatifid; veins free; sori orbicular or elongate, abaxial on veins, indusiate or exindusiate; indusia ovate-lanceolate, ovate, or orbicular, attached proximally to receptacle. x = 40, 42.
Four genera and more than 30 species: worldwide, mainly in the temperate and cold temperate zones and tropical mountains; four genera (one endemic) and 20 species (ten endemic) in China.
Wang Zhong-ren. 1999. Acystopteris, Cystoathyrium, Cystopteris, and Gymnocarpium. In: Chu Wei-ming, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 3(2): 38-74.